Chapter the Twenty-Fifth: Midcontinent States

Ocieca cupidigia, o ira folle,
Che si ci sproni nella vita corta.
E nell' eterna poi si mal c'immolle!—Dell Inferno

It is better to live rich than to die rich. —Ben Johnson

Men who could willingly resign the luxuries and sensual pleasures of a large fortune cannot consent to live without the grandeur and the homage. Riches without law are more dangerous than poverty without law.—Beecher

Riches are not an end of life, but an instrument of life. Money makes up in a measure all other wants in men.—Wycherley

Genius scores the power of gold; it is wrong; gold is the war-scythe on its chariot, which mows down the millions of its foes, and gives free passage to the sun-coursers with which it leaves those heavenly fields of light for the gross battlefields of earth. —Ouida.

Money, in truth, can do much, but it cannot do all; we must know the province of it and confine it there. and even spurn it back when it wishes to get farther. —Carlyle

Character is money; and according as the man earns or spends the money, money in turn becomes character. As money is the most evident power in the world’s uses, so the use that he makes of money is often all that the world knows about a man.—Bulwer

Gold is a wonderful clearer of the understanding; it dissipates every doubt and scruple in an instant, accommodates itself to the meanest capacities, silences the loud and clamorous, and brings over the most obstinate and inflexible.—Addison

More than a century intervened between the occupation of the Mississippi valley by the French and the occupation of trans-Mississippi regions by Anglo-Americans. The bursting of the John Law bubble left a line of thrifty French settlers from New Orleans to St. Louis, who had at hand everything the new world could give them, without troubling themselves in regard to the limitless unexplored lands to the westward. Trappers, it is true, penetrated as far in that direction as they chose to go, but that was not far. France pitched tents but planted few colonies in America. After the transfer of Canada to England in 1762, and later of Louisiana to Spain, the Mississippi valley finally falling to the United States, there was a long pause before the people from Europe had any desire for more of this western wilderness.

Discovery beyond the Mississippi began with the explorations of the Verendryes in the Mandan country in 1731-1743, and the voyage of the philosophic savage. Moncacht Ape, up the Missouri and down the Columbia to the Pacific Ocean. These were followed by the expeditions of Jonathan Carver to the land of the Dakotas in 1766, of Pike and Long, 1805-1820, to where is now Colorado and Council bluffs, of Lewis and Clarke who in 1804-1805 followed the track of Moncacht Ape, and the overland Astor expedition to Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia in 1810. After that trappers and traders scattered themselves over the region where now are Iowa and Minnesota, Kansas, Nebraska, and Dakota, building forts and mingling with the natives.

The great fur-trading association of Laclede Maxan and company, New Orleans, derived their commission from the director-general of Louisiana as early as 1762, and the following winter Auguste and Pierre Chouteau established a trading post where now is St. Louis. At this point centered the fur business of the country which extended a thousand miles away to the north and west, amounting to some $300,000 a year. "Like any gold or fur-hunting metropolis," I find written in The Northwest Coast, "St. Louis at this time was the center of rude bustle and business activity. With the original Creole population, the descendants of the French colonists, and stray reminders of Spanish domination, were mixed keen trafficking New Englanders, brawny backwoodsmen of the western frontier, tall big-boned specimens of the unwashed and untaught corn-bread-and-bacon-fed of Tennessee Kentucky, Illinois, and Missouri, with voyagers from Canada, half-breeds from the prairies, following their several bents, trading, gambling, fighting, loafing, strutting, swaggering, drinking and swearing, laughing and singing, like other filthy foul-mouthed ignorant and blasphemous assemblages of God's motley mortals.”

Independence and St. Joseph were also points of departure for fur-hunting expeditions, and later for the overland emigrant trains to Oregon and California. John Jacob Astor had an agency at St. Louis, also the Northwest Company, under the management of Jacob Mires. The Missouri Fur company of St. Louis originated with Manuel Lisa, a wealthy and honorable Spaniard, and eleven others, who with $40,000 capital proposed to monopolize the fur trade in that section, and succeeded for a time in doing so. In their service were 250 white men, trappers and traders, besides thousands of Indians. One of the partners, Mr. Henry, in 1808 built a fort on a branch of the Lewis River. Then came the operations of Astor from this point, the Columbia Fur company on the upper Missouri and Yellowstone, and the American Fur company, under whose direction W. H. Ashley built a fort in the Utah country. Smith Jackson and Sublette in 1826 established at St. Louis the Rocky Mountain Fur company, operating along the Santa Fe trail to New Orleans and Chihuahua; and there were many other companies and independent traders and trappers who lent their aid to bring to the light of civilization the vast region beyond the Mississippi and Missouri.

The despoilation of the native nations by patriots and puritans from Great Britain, and their descendants, begun by robberies frauds wars and massacres, and continued by rum religion and the diseases of civilization, was finally completed by so-called purchases and treaties, until the Indians were "treatied” out of their possessions, and finally out of the world. Some of the few remaining, however, inheritors from all who were before them, and against whom no further excuse for robbery could be brought up, became rich, even as riches are reckoned among the civilized. For what they were forced to abandon the scattered tribes were gathered and conveyed to a region beyond the great river, and there placed in possession of territory covering 64,223 square miles, or 41,102.546 acres, which further "treaties" reduced to 20,000,000 acres, 8,000,000 of which were tillable. Here 50,000 Indians grew wheat, corn, cotton, horses, mules, cattle, swine, and sheep, with Negro slaves so plentiful that there were, after the war, 17,000 freedmen. They now have schools, churches, and all the paraphernalia of culture, and many of them are educated, intelligent, rich, and prosperous. At most of the other reservations, where were gathered under protection of government the remnants of many tribes of these children of the forest, the hungry spoilers are still hot after them, clamoring for their yet further crowding up, so that white men may have their lands.

Oklahoma, that is to say "beautiful land," consists of the center of the Indian Territory. When seen by Diego Dionisio de Penalosa in 1662, it was, as he reports, a land "pleasant and delightful, and so covered with Buffalo, or cows of Cibola, as to cause notable admiration. There were beautiful rivers, marshes and springs, studded with luxuriant forests, and trees of fine fruits, particularly plums of excellent flavor; strawberries and great clusters of grapes; mulberry trees for silk growing; roses and fine grasses, with useful and fragrant plants, clover, flax, hemp; all kinds of game, birds, animals and fishes, partridges, quails and turkeys, deer, elk and antelope;”—these for native resources, which enlarged and expanded under cultivation. Presenting the Creeks and Seminoles $4,000,000 for this garden of their reservation, the United States in 1889 opened the tract to settlement, and in rushed 50,000 settlers, and ere long there was territorial government, with Guthrie the capital, and farms, towns, banks, newspapers, and the rest, flourishing on every side. And still the cry of the white man is for more of the red man's lands, insatiable in an avarice and greed which will not be satisfied as Iong as anything whatever remains.

The Sioux, or Dakotas, inhabiting the head waters of the Mississippi, were first made known to the French, by the Algonquians in 1640. Twenty years after they began a war with the Chippewas and Hurons which continued for half a century. The government several times made purchases of their lands, moving them each time further back toward the west until the United States became indebted to them over $10,000,000. The war which broke out with them in 1862 cost the government $40,000,000. In the war of 1876, resulting in the annihilation of Custer’s command, the chief, Sitting Bull, played a conspicuous part, and on meeting with defeat later, escaped to Canada. The Omahas, whose reservation of 345,000 acres is in Nebraska, between the rivers Elkhorn and Missouri cultivated corn, beans, and melons, and indulged in religious and domestic vagaries peculiarly their own. On the right bank of the Missouri, opposite the bluff where was held the council which gave them their lands, stands the capital city of Nebraska, to which, their name was most appropriately given.

The Blackfeet were originally on the Saskatchewan, but later on the Missouri. They were great warriors and robbers, and hence became rich in horses, weapons, and furs. For so roving a people, living in skin lodges and without fixed villages, the Comanches managed to collect considerable property, particularly during the palmy days of overland and Mexican travel, when long caravans of richly laden and poorly guarded wagons moved slowly along the Santa Fe Trail. In like manner the Apaches reaped rich harvests from the emigrant wagons, before and after 1849.

The individual property of 3,218 Comanches in 1872 was estimated at $400,000. Both of these fierce nomadic nations roamed over the country between Texas and Arizona, and along the line into Mexico, the Apaches tending toward the west and the Comanches toward the east within these limits. By act of congress of May 28, 1830, the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles, living in Tennessee, Georgia, Mississippi, Florida, and Louisiana, or also the remnants of the Iroquois, Six Nations, the Wyandottes, Senecas, and Shawnees, in short all the Indians yet remaining east of the Mississippi were sent to the unorganized portion of the Louisiana purchase west of the Mississippi river, later known as the Indian Territory, Kansas, and part of Nebraska. To the Indian Territory were afterward conveyed the lowas, Poncas, Otoes, Delawares, and Kaws of Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas; also the Sacs and Foxes of the upper Mississippi, the Modocs from Oregon, in fact all who any where yet stood in the way of those having the power, and claiming mental or moral superiority.

Animals and plants useful to man, and which with his manipulation became wealth, were abundant and varied. Take the Buffalo of the plains; after civilization had preyed upon them for two and a half centuries, they were still so thick as to seriously interfere with early traffic. Many an overland caravan was trodden under foot by them, and so late as the year 1870, trains on the Kansas Pacific, and other midcontinent steam roads, were sometimes derailed by Buffalo, until the engineers learned that it was better to halt and give the way than to ignore or oppose them. Ten years later they were almost extinct. Their range was from the Alleghenies to the Sierra Nevada, and from Zacatecas in Mexico to Great Salt Lake in Canada. Small herds have been domesticated, or propagated, by C. T. Jones of Kansas, Charles Allard of Montana, Robert Wickliffe of Kentucky, and others, the buffalo being in some instances successfully crossed with domestic cattle, the product being a large hardy animal easily kept. The great horned beast, in his boundless native pastures, was the king of savagedom; for though food and raiment for the Indians, they still flourished under the contribution, and until they became old or disabled—dead or ready to die—wolves and bears were no match for them in fair fight.

Doubtless from the early beginnings Europeans have influenced development in the United States, but native Americans have done more. Many of the best builders of our commonwealth have never been brought to the front, but have lived and labored in obscurity, as artisans rather than as architects; yet by these, and as much by living as by laboring, have our institutions been established. The great men of the Midcontinent States are yet on their way from boyhood; or if full stature has been attained they have yet for the most part to become known to the world beyond their own world. Recognition is not given gratuitously, oftentimes not even gracefully, but must be enforced by superiority of strength and character, even as Lincoln and Harrison and McKinley won their way to the front. Within the twentieth century how many prominent or presiding officers of the nation will be furnished by Minnesota, by Iowa, by Nebraska? Doubtless their share. Lucretius in his De Rerum Natura, thus speaks of the origin and evolution of states.

Those, too, elected rulers, now began
Towns to project, and raise the massy fort,
Heedful of distant dangers. Into shares
Their herds and lands they severed; and on those
Chief famed for beauty, elegance, or strength,
Allotted ampler portions; for the form
Much then availed, and much the potent arm.
But wealth ere long was fashioned, gold uprose,
And half the power and strength and beauty fled.
And still the brave, the beauteous still, too oft
Alike to riches bow the servile knee.

Wealth, like speech, or any other adjunct or concomitant of civilization depends upon association. Environment dominates. Wealth is wholly artificial. An individual article or possession, apart from any other article or possession, however intrinsically valuable or necessary, is not wealth. In societies purely primitive, there is no such thing as wealth, in the sense of property or possession, for the air and the sunshine, water and land, fruits and flowers, fish and game, are free to all. But when an implement is made, or a tool fashioned, whereby the possessor is better able to secure food or raiment or shelter, to capture wild beasts or navigate the water or till the land, that yeasty problem progress sets in, and with progress property, for these are ministers to property—impelling powers. In due time metal takes the place of wood and stone in the manufacture of tools and utensils, woven fabrics supersede skins for clothing and handmade habitations are preferred to primeval caves. Land boundaries are marked off and opposing tribes admonished to keep within their lines; animals are domesticated, and men and women placed under divers bondages to each other, and in mortal fear of celestial powers—badges of a servitude which beasts disdain to wear. And when riches come, various are their kinds and conditions. From association come increased land values; governments require palaces and other public buildings, fortifications, canals, and highways; the people want their pleasure-parks and picture-galleries, while poverty and crime demand poor-houses, hospitals, and prisons. Private or individual wealth is found in merchandise and machinery, as well as in land and land products, mines, manufactures, and transportation contrivances.

All wealth is precarious; some kinds less so than other kinds. Paper promises to pay are not durable, and hence they are profitable to the producer; gold currency is costly, and though of durable metal it quickly drops out of hand and is lost; when it can no more be replenished from the mines some other measure of values must be found. But notwithstanding moth and rust, necessary consumption and inevitable destruction from the outbursts of men's passions and natures powers, fire water and electricity, wars and earthquakes, there are yet more riches in the earth than have ever been drawn from it by many hundred fold. And though richer now than ever, the world is still heaping up wealth at a rate hard to realize, owing largely to inventions, labor-economizing machinery, and increased facilities for the exchange of products.

The experiment of self-government begun in the eighteenth century was to be proved in the nineteenth. The three million of British subjects who had then thrown off the yoke of the parent state were inclined to peace; they wanted nothing that was another's, and had no fear of men; they were spared the necessity of supporting in idleness either a royal family, a titled nobility, or a standing army. For two and a half years peace was disturbed by a claim to search American ships for British sailors. During this war the Americans were victorious in several naval engagements, but were repulsed in their invasion of Canada. The British captured Washington City, but were badly beaten at New Orleans. And although England had a thousand armed ships and a million of armed men, while the United States had neither army nor navy, yet both sides were glad to stop such senseless proceedings. Progress for the next fifty years was greater than ever had been in the history of nations, and greater than probably ever will be again. Intelligent, enterprising, free, with limitless land in a temperate clime, population and wealth four times doubled themselves once in fifteen years. From Napoleon Louisiana was purchased, Spain ceded Florida, while Texas and California were taken from Mexico.

Then came the great upheaval, the civil war. The people of the south had been brought up in the belief that slavery is right; their industrial greatness seemed to depend upon slave labor; the Negro, steeped in ignorance and naturally lazy and improvident, would not work in the cotton rice and tobacco fields except upon compulsion. The constitution under which the states had federated guaranteed them property rights in the black man, and these rights must be respected. The people of the north thought differently. Slavery was an unholy and antiquated institution, a stain upon civilization and the republic, and must be abolished. The south then proposed separation, but the north said No, ours is a permanent compact, not a temporary association. War followed, eleven states seceding. The south were victorious at the outset, but in the end the north prevailed. Not only was slavery abolished, but the stolid African was placed upon a political equality with enlightened citizens of the commonwealth, and thus was perpetrated a greater infamy, a greater self-degradation than any Athens or Rome can boast; and there are even today people in America who regard this unhallowed crime a raising up of the poor down-trodden African instead of an abasement of all the principles of self- government, a moral and political degradation, a prostitution of all that is pure and progressive in republicanism.

The war was a terrible blow both to the north and to the south. Two millions of the brightest and best of the nation's young men, and six thousand millions of money had been offered up a sacrifice to the integrity of the nation, the glory thereof to be so soon dimmed by the infliction of that greatest of abominations, the enfranchisement of the negro. Spasms of progress appeared in the north, while the wasted south recuperated more slowly. With a population of seventy millions in 1900, the people of the United States find not more than one-half of their tillable land under cultivation. Less than a century and a half ago the Anglo-American colonist might not make so much as "a nail for a horse’s shoe,” as Lord Chatham expressed it; now the United States are commercially self-contained and independent of foreign factories for any article of necessity or luxury. It is we who serve the foreigners, and not they us. Were all intercourse with foreign nations completely cut off for the next hundred years the United States would be the richer for it. Yet in this we are improving; once we bought from England $200,000,000 worth of goods a year; now we buy less than one quarter as much, and the amount will be getting smaller until we manufacture all and more than we require.

The development of agriculture in the United States has not been rapid. Indigenous were found here by the first comers, maize, which they called Indian corn; potatoes, which the Irish seized and planted and fed on until the Indian root took the name of Irish potatoes; tobacco, that whilom world's abomination and later world's fascination. To these and other native products were quickly added European and Asiatic plants and animals, horses and cattle by the Plymouth and Dutch colonies, swine from England, the cereals and fruits of central Asia; cotton from Smyrna, though the plant is native to the West Indies and elsewhere; and for farm labor, slaves at first, and later to a great extent labor-saving inventions and farm implements.

A revolution in the raising of grain was brought about by the invention of the McCormick reaper which made it possible for this to become a great wheat-producing country. Agriculture was affected by other inventions, like that of the cotton-gin by Eli Whitney in 1794, the cotton machinery invented by Hargreaves and Arkwright in the latter part of the 18th century, and the introduction of the power-loom at Waltham and Lowell, which allowed production largely to outrun consumption. Homestead laws and land-grants wore also factors in the progress of agriculture, and also transportation facilities, largely increased by the building of turn-pikes, canals, and railways.

Education in agriculture began as early as 1844, and was attended by the best results. Agricultural schools arose, and chairs of agriculture established in the colleges. An agricultural college was founded at Cleveland. Ohio, in 1855, and one at Lansing, Michigan, two years later. Books on domestic animals, farm products, and husbandry were published, some of high grade, like those by A. J. Downing, and later the proceedings of the Patrons of Husbandry, a society organized by the farmers of the United States in order to secure special legislation and for protection against the frauds of middle-men and the -railroads. Add drainage and manuring to agricultural implements, the manufacture of which grew in round numbers $7,000,000 worth in 18 0 to $75,000,000 worth in 1890, and the great advance is accounted for. Within a period of forty years the manufacture of artificial manures in the United States, particularly of the phosphates advanced from $30,000 to $30,000,000. In like manner, though not in like proportion, developed the dairy system, due to association, cheap transportation, and a better knowledge of the business. The breeds of horses, cattle, swine, sheep, and poultry were improved and their raising increased. The production of cereals has become such that one favorable year s crop will load a train of cars reaching twice round the earth. The cultivation of rice, which industry was almost ruined during the civil war, has regained somewhat of its former prosperity. It costs but one-third as much to raise potatoes here as in Europe; the annual crop in the United States is rapidly approaching 200,000,000 bushels, or about three bushels for every individual. Of tobacco, 500,000,000 pounds are raised, or seven pounds for every person.

Iowa is mostly prairie, though with some wooded hill land, mostly agricultural lands, though with a plentiful supply of minerals. Happy in the embrace of two mighty rivers, the all-discovering Frenchmen saw it first in 1673, and pronounced it good, but not until more than a century after Joliet and Marquette came, settlers from the eastward came percolating through the forests, or paddling up the rivers from the south. A steam-boat was at St. Louis in 1817, and after the beginning of river navigation upon the new lines, new lands were secured to civilization. Corn and cattle flourished here, likewise sheep and swine. Of the lands set apart by the government in the several states for the support of a university, Iowa received on the adoption of her constitution in 1846, 45,928 acres, and the state university was begun at Iowa city. A superb pile of buildings, and well adapted for the purpose, is the Iowa insane hospital at Independence.

Dubuque owes existence to its lead ore, 500 miners settling there in 1833. It is now one of the most important commercial and industrial cities in that section, with rail and river communication to all parts. Among the public edifices are the cathedral, hospital, and convent. Des Moines, the capital of Iowa and center of several railways, has, besides government buildings, state capitol, arsenal, library, and university. Among the extensive manufacturies are woolen, paper, and oil mills, and agricultural implements, iron, machine, and scale works. The academy of Natural Sciences of Davenport, organized in 1867, has good botanical and ethnological cabinets, and owing to the interest and zeal of the ladies of Davenport, it is an active and efficient institution, with frequent lectures and published proceedings. Joseph H. Hampson has probably built more miles of railroad than any other one man. He constructed large sections of the Denver and Rio Grande, Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe, Nogales and Guymas, Mexican Central, Mexican National, Jalapa and Vera Cruz, Michoacán and Pacific, and the Mexico and Cuernavaca and Pacific.

The vast area of 147,700 square miles once called the Mandan region, and organized as a territory in 1861, was in 1889 divided into two parts. The land is for the most part fertile rolling prairie, the country west of the Missouri being somewhat more broken. Wonderland, it has been called, owing to seemingly strange contradictions to natural laws-as regards climate and productiveness of soil. The Mandans, from whom the country was wrested by the Sioux, or Dakotas, were an intelligent and noble race, as the relics yet remaining in mounds and fortifications prove. There were no white settlers in the country to speak of prior to 1859. A legislature in 1862 met at Yankton, which was made the capital. The two Dakotas, where in 1870 were but 13,000 white men, had a population in 1890 of 512,000, with property valued at $150,000,000. Though the climate is severe in its extremes, yet owing to the dryness of the air it is not so unpleasantly felt as in the east. Rain in the spring is abundant, and this brings the crops well forward. Though the country is eminently agricultural, manufacturies are not wholly neglected, flouring-mills coming first. The cattle industry is large, particularly in the northwestern part, where herds of from 1,000 to 40,000 are frequent. Bismark, the capital of North Dakota, is fast assuming the proportions of a fine city, with government and benevolent and educational buildings and adjuncts.

South Dakota is specially adapted to stock-raising, the rich native; grasses being all that are required to grow cattle from calf-hood to maturity, winter and summer, and fatten them for the market, without the aid of any other food whatever. In like manner horses thrive in the Black hills, never touching grain other than that the grass contains. The large wheat farms of North Dakota, California, and Washington, are conducted on business as well as agricultural principles; most of the work is performed by machinery, the laborers guiding the teams and the foreman guiding the laborers.

Five or ten gang plows, cutting from ten to forty furrows, and drawn by from four to eighteen horses, travel twenty miles a day, aggregating a strip 400 or 600 feet wide at every round. The farms are in size from 2,000 to 10,000 acres, and worth about twenty five dollars an acre, some of the land yielding twenty bushels an acre. Sowing and reaping, like plowing, are performed by great gangs of machines one following another. The merchants of Fargo sell $3,000,000 worth of new farm machinery annually, the returns from the farm supplied being about $25,000,000 worth of grain.

Not only in the Cascade-Nevada mountain states, the Rocky Mountains, and the intervening plains is irrigation all-dominant, but in the Dakotas, Kansas, and Texas it has become a recognized necessity of paramount importance. And notwithstanding all the great works which have been done, notwithstanding the many thousand acres which have been reclaimed, many thousand more await reclamation. For this purpose artesian wells as well as streams are brought into requisition. The gulf-coast country of Texas, and other like areas, need no irrigation. The Lake Superior canal, which is to connect Minneapolis and St. Paul with Lake Superior by way of the St. Croix and Brule rivers, will be 162 miles long and cost $90,000,000.

Minnesota, though essentially an agricultural state, is not without its other resources. Grain and stock are conspicuous as industries, with meat-packing, and flour and lumber mills. Minneapolis and St. Paul, at the falls of St. Anthony, destined in time to become united in one great midcontinent city, are establishing themselves upon that surest of all foundations for wealth and progress, manufactures. The water-power here is superb, and the flouring and other mills extensive and efficient, some of them being the largest of their kind in the world. Duluth, near the west end of Lake Superior and one of the eastern termini of the Northern Pacific railway, occupies a commanding position. Conspicuous among its interests are grain-elevators, ironworks, lumber-mills, and stockyards. Great quantities of grain are shipped hence; also lumber, and iron and copper ore from the Lake Superior mines. James J. Hill, one of the wealthiest men of Minnesota, gave archbishop Ireland $1,000,000 for a theological seminary.  J. S. Pillsbury donated $150,000 to the city of Minneapolis for a university hall of science.

The prairie plain of Kansas, sloping gently from west to east, possesses the finest agricultural and mineral possibilities, in the direction particularly of grain cotton and cattle. Much the same may be said of Nebraska. The prosperity of both states is assured, the foundations of great wealth in both of them being already laid. Omaha is growing into a fine city, with parks and gardens, beautiful streets and buildings, and all the requirements of a superior civilization. In Kansas is an apple orchard of 100,000 trees, the property of one Wellhouse, who is called the apple king of the world.

Texas, seceding from Mexico in 1837, and joining the United States in 1845, had been prepared for these events by immigrants under Austin and Houston. Moses Austin was at San Antonio in 1820 where he attempted colonization. His son Stephen brought in immigrants and, assisted by Sam Houston, contributed largely toward the Americanization of the country. Texas has large areas of bad land, yet the production of cotton sugar grain and cattle is large, and there are some minerals. Austin, the capital, has the state university, supported by public lands which were reserved by the state for educational purposes on joining the American union. Houston is an important railway and shipping point, at the same time manufacturing cottonseed-oil, fertilizers, cement, and farm implements.

Stephen F. Austin, in carrying out the views of his father, Moses Austin, who in 1820 attempted colonization in Texas, became the founder of that great commonwealth, and gave his name to the capital of the state. He planted a colony in 1821 on the spot where now stands the city of Austin, and was obliged to go several times to the city of Mexico to establish his rights, and on one of these occasions he was imprisoned for thirteen months in the dungeons of the Inquisition. Moses Austin had made quite a fortune in lead mining and the manufacture of shot, but lost it through the failure of the bank of St. Louis. Sam Houston came to Texas in 1832, defeated Austin in an election for the presidency of the new republic after the independence of Texas had been recognized by the United States, and later became governor. The city of Houston was settled in 1836; it has become of late quite a railway and agricultural center. Austin has the state university, several asylums, and other institutions. It has some manufactures, and handles considerable cotton. Among the cattle kings of Texas is A. H. Pierce, who came from Rhode Island when a youth, and after serving as cowboy clerk and proprietor, finally secured some $5,000,000 worth of the world's wealth. Some of the largest tracts of land in the possession of individuals are in Texas. The San Gertrude rancho, for example, formerly the property of Richard King, and at his death falling to his widow, consisted of 1,875 square miles.

Missouri is one of the great and wealthy states of the American commonwealth, possessing as it does every advantage for both agriculture and iron coal lead and copper mining. Corn wheat and tobacco are the staple products, and in the southern part cotton hemp and flax. St. Louis had many parks and squares, and botanical gardens, altogether a beautiful city with picturesque surroundings. The stranger is impressed by the many costly buildings, particularly among the residences, while the railway station is one of the finest in the world. The Academy of Science of St. Louis, organized in 1856, has a museum and library, and covers in its efforts the whole field of science. Kentuckians and Virginians came in 1820, to where now is Jefferson city, capital of Missouri, incorporated in 1839. It occupies a lovely site on the highlands overlooking the river. For prominent buildings there are the United States courthouse, state supreme courthouse, armory, penitentiary, Lincoln institute; and among the manufactories, shoe, broom, wagon, barrel, and machine shops, foundry and breweries.