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Chapter the Twenty-Sixth: Southern States

How comes it to Marcenas, that no one lives content with his condition? O happy merchants says the soldier; the lawyer praises the farmer's state; they only are happy who live in the city, cries the countryman. You who surmount every obstacle that no other men may be richer than yourself, what pleasure is it for you, trembling to deposit an immense weight of silver and gold in earth? What beauty has an accumulated hoard? Though your threshing should yield a hundred thousand bushels of corn, your belly will not on that account contain more than mine. What is it to the purpose whether you plow a hundred or a thousand acres? Because it is delightful to take out of a great hoard; because one is esteemed by what one possesses. Happy the man who, remote from business, cultivates his paternal lands with his own oxen, disengaged from every kind of usury! What does the poet beg from Phoebus on the dedication of his temple? What does he pray for, while he pours from the flagon the first libation? Not the rich crops of fertile Sardinia; not the goodly flocks of scorched Calabria; not gold, or Indian ivory; not those countries, which the still river Liris eats away with its silent streams. Let those to whom fortune has given the Calenian vineyards prune them with a hooked knife; and let the wealthy merchant drink out of golden cups the wines procured by his Syrian merchandise, favored by the gods themselves, inasmuch as without loss he visits three or four times a year the Atlantic sea. Me olives support, me succories and soft mallows. O thou son of Latona, grant me to enjoy my acquisitions, and to posses my health, together with an unimpaired understanding. I beseech thee; and that I may not lead a dishonorable old age, nor one bereft of the lyre.

Since the time when in 1513 Juan Ponce de Leon sought for the Fountain of Youth, many have visited Florida for health, and some have found it. Though the Spaniards secured not there perpetual youth and beauty, many of them found death, which is next best if the ancients may be believed. Nor was Ponce de Leon the first to search for a life-perpetuater Tao-tse, the Epicurus of China, began the search for the elixir of perpetual life in the year 540 BC.

The province of Las Palmas, the gulf coast was called, which constitutes the border of the southern states between Florida and Mexico, and thither went from Spain, commissioned as governor, Panfilo de Narvaez, who with 400 men and 80 horses landed at Tampa bay in 1528, and thence marched inland, and along the coast toward Panuco, finally coming to grief. Treasurer and alcalde mayor of this expedition was Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, who became separated from his company, and was made a slave among the Indians. Escaping after six years of servitude, he made his way westward, in company with three others, these being the first Europeans to cross the continent from the gulf Mexico. With Cabeza de Vaca were fifteen others, to which number the expedition of Narvaez was ere long reduced by starvation and murderous savages, who shared his wanderings, until their number was reduced to four, and thus the Europeans were made to taste the delights of slavery in what were later the southern United States and which the Europeans filled with the black slaves from Africa.

Possession was taken for Spain near where later was established St. Augustine, which enjoys the reputation of being the oldest city built by Europeans in the United States, or indeed in America, with all the benefits accruing from that distinction, whatever they may be.

Pamphilo de Narvaez was in the vicinity in 1528, and Hermando de Soto in 1539, the latter crossing the country to the Mississippi river, where he died. Frenchmen under Laudonniere landed there in 1562, and were promptly hanged by Spaniards under Menendez, who in turn were as promptly hanged by other Frenchmen, other Spaniards coming later. Then in 1586 appeared the English under Francis Drake, the greatest pirate of all, who frightened away the people, took what he liked and destroyed the remainder, sailing away to Virginia. Such is history. Though the bird of evil omen had flown, there were still English to fight in Carolina, where Walter Raleigh had attempted colonization in 1585 and failed, preferring Virginia. And so for a century or more, as drums beat and cannon belched between French Spanish and English in Europe, the echo was heard in America, rousing to petty conflicts. James Oglethorpe, who came from England to make an asylum for insolvent debtors and persecuted Christians, planted a colony at the Savannah in 1732, and called the country Georgia, from the English king then reigning. He soon found time to fight the Spaniards in Florida, while his people stocked their farms with African slaves. Carolina was divided into north and south in 1729, when the population was 13,000. The South Carolina settlement of English colonists on Ashley River in 1670 moved ten years later to the present site of Charleston. Slavery in Virginia dates from 1619 when a Dutch man-of-war, sold at Jamestown 20 Africans, ten years after the appearance there of the London company. William and Mary College was founded under royal patronage in 1693. For over a century and a half the territory of Virginia extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi river, and was later divided into five states. As for Maryland, Lord Baltimore held the country for the crown of England as part of Windsor manor, paying a yearly rental therefore of two Indian arrows.

After LaSalle's unsuccessful attempt at colonization in Louisiana in 1684, came Iberville in 1700 and planted a French colony on the river below where now is New Orleans. And the city today is still half French. Including all the posts on the Mississippi river and its tributaries, there were not over 500 Europeans in the whole Louisiana country as then known. The territory below the mouth of the Illinois was granted by the king of France to Antoine Crozat, who appointed Cadillac governor, under whom and his successors it was mismanaged until John Law appeared, and obtained the country from Crozat for his bubble scheme, known as the Western company.

Iberville's brother, Bienville, was appointed governor, and New Orleans founded, 2,500 white persons and 1,800 Negro slaves arriving in the years 1718-1721. The Western company, with East India company grants, had become the India Company, and notwithstanding the failure of Law the colonists prospered. With limitless lands, rich soil, warm climate, and plenty of slaves, it would have been strange otherwise. In 1762 the province was transferred from France to Spain; in the year following the portion of Louisiana cast of the Mississippi river was ceded to Great Britain, falling for the most part in 1783 to the United States, Spain still retaining possession of the west bank. In 1800 Spain ceded her interest in the Louisiana territory to France and in 1803 France sold all to the United States for $12,000,000, and $3,750,000 French claims.

De Soto made a search for gold in Alabama in 1541. In 1711 the French planted themselves on the present site of Mobile. Arkansas was early occupied by the French, their chief settlement being on the site of the present Little Rock, on the Arkansas River. Pierre Laclede Liguest selected the site of St. Louis, where in 1764 Auguste Chouteau planted a village. Tennessee at first was supposed to be part of the colony of North Carolina, but when the English crossed the Appalachian range, they found French settlers on the Tennessee, Ohio, and Cumberland rivers. The British Fort Loudon was erected in 1757 on the Little Tennessee River, but was taken by the Cherokees. William C. C. Claiborne, sent by President Jefferson to the Mississippi as governor in 1802, managed the heterogeneous elements composing the country with great ability during the transfer of Louisiana in 1803. Kentucky was once part of Virginia. John Finley led a party there from North Carolina in 1767. Daniel Boone came with a party from North Carolina in 1769, and the country was set off as a county of Virginia. There was a settlement at Harrodsburg in 1774. Daniel Boone is called the founder of Kentucky. He was twice captured by the Indians in making his preliminary survey, prior to moving there with his own and other families, and building a fort at Boonesborough, on the Kentucky river. He was afterward in several Indian battles, and found trouble in getting a good title to the lands he desired.

De Soto found the Cherokees, a noble race, occupying the upper valley of the Tennessee in 1540. Later they had homes, cattle, horses, farming implements, and slaves. King Oganasdoda quite impressed the Europeans during a visit to England. The Creeks lived in Alabama and Florida, coming originally out of the earth, as they say of themselves, and in which doctrine they may have been nearer right than they knew. They were a powerful people, their influence being felt at one time from Louisiana to the Carolinas. The Carolinas were inhabited by the Catawbas, and though numerous and warlike, they were always friendly to the settlers, assisting them against the Tuscaroras and Cherokees.

The Chickasaws of the Mississippi once numbered 10,000 warriors. They fought the French and the Iroquois, uniting with the Natchez for that purpose. Obtaining large land reservations from the government, some of them laid out extensive cotton plantations, and buying negroes became aristocrats,—the red savages owners of black Africans brought hither originally for this purpose by the white men of England and Holland.

The Choctaws, on the Mexican gulf, gave De Soto a warm reception at Mavilla in 1540, but they did not disdain Spanish aid under Tristan de Luna in 1560 against the Natchez. After a that they joined themselves to iii every new comer, first as allies of the French when they settled Louisiana, then siding with the English, and finally espousing the cause of the United States, receiving in return security in the possession of 20,000,000 acres of land west of Arkansas, and 52,225,000 in money, with as many negro slaves as they cared to possess. The Natchez affected a native culture superior to that of their neighbors, claiming kindred to the civilized Nahuas and Mayas of Mexico and Central America. The Seminoles, numbering 3,899 in 1822, and occupying villages from St. Augustine to the Apalachicola, owned 800 negroes, which they lost by the civil war; yet in 1870 their personal property was valued at $237,000. By act of congress of May 28, 1830, the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles, living in Tennessee, Georgia, Mississippi, Florida, and Louisiana, also the remnant of the Iroquois, or Six Nations, the Wyandottes, Senecas, and Shawnees, in short all the Indians yet remaining east of the Mississippi, were sent to the unorganized portion of the Louisiana purchase west of the Mississippi river, later known as the Indian Territory, Kansas, and part of Nebraska. To the Indian Territory were afterward conveyed the lowas, Poncas, Ottoes, Delawares, and Kaws of Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas; also the Sacs and Foxes of the upper Mississippi, the Modocs from Oregon, in fact all who stood in the way of those having the power, and claiming mental or moral superiority.

Conspicuous from the earliest times in Maryland has been the name Calvert, being the name of Lord Baltimore and his descendants. George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore in America was first given by his master, James I, the province of Avalon in Newfoundland, but changed before taking possession to Maryland, in the North of Virginia. Upon the death in 1632 of George Calvert, his son Cecil took measures to carry out his father's plans with wisdom and fidelity. Honest in his dealings, and free from that fiery fanaticism which characterized the settlers from whatever part of Europe, he paid the Indians for their lands, and so preserved peace and good will without and within the borders of his settlement. If all who came hither had been of like quality of manhood, how differently would read the history of our country!  Charles Calvert, the third Lord Baltimore, married Jane Sewall, and went to live near the mouth of the Patuxent River. After graduating at Harvard, George H. Calvert, fifth Lord Baltimore, returned to Maryland and devoted himself to letters, publishing several prose works and volumes of poetry. The Carrolls of Maryland may be here mentioned. In 1688 Charles Carroll, formerly secretary to Lord Powis, came to Annapolis as agent of Lord Baltimore. Being prudent, and a good business man he secured large tracts of land on the Patapsco River, and left very wealthy his son Charles, who married Elizabeth Broke. It was Charles, the son of this Charles, who called himself ‘of Carrolton,’ and so signed the declaration of Independence. He married Mary Darnell in 1768, and at the beginning of the revolution was reputed the richest man in the colonies. Charles Carroll, his son, married the daughter of Benjamin Chew, chief justice of Pennsylvania, and the great-grandson of Charles Carroll of Carrollton was John Lee Carroll, governor of Maryland.

William Fairfax, son of Henry Fairfax of Tolston, was the first of the family to come to America. He arrived in 1717, was collector of customs at Salem for a time, and then went to Virginia in 1734 to build Belvoir on the Potomac as agent for his cousin Thomas, sixth Lord Fairfax, who had inherited from his mother, daughter of Governor Culpeper, of Virginia, 6,000,000 acres of land. A grant of land and money, £2,000 out of the quit rents of the colony, was obtained by Virginia from the home government for William and Mary College. Scotch thrift resulting in great wealth attended the efforts in Virginia of Robert Dinwiddie, lieutenant-governor in 1752. Though his reputation for honesty and integrity was none too good, he was yet the patron and friend of George Washington, though the latter was often annoyed by his impolitic measures. John Washington, great-grandfather of George Washington, settled himself in Virginia in 1657. Augustine Washington, father of George, died when the son was twelve years old, the estate now known as Mount Vernon going to his brother and guardian Lawrence, who married a daughter of his neighbor Lord Fairfax. In 1748, being then sixteen years of age, George Washington was appointed surveyor of the immense Fairfax estate, and began speculating in western lands.

After escaping with his life from Braddock's defeat, and upon the death of his brother Lawrence, he became possessor of Mount Vernon, married Martha, the wealthy widow of John P. Custis, and died childless in 1799. The father of James Madison was a rich Virginia planter of high social position. So it was with James Monroe, who studied law with Thomas Jefferson, whose father was obscure and illiterate. Slave property once constituted an important item in the wealth of the country. Negro slaves were landed at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1620, and soon all the colonies had slaves. With the advance of mind and morals in due time came emancipation by the states, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts in 1780; Rhode Island and Connecticut, 1784; New Hampshire, 1792; Vermont, 1795; New York, 1799; New Jersey, 1704; Maine 1819. The question being settled prior to their organization, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa never had slaves. Emancipation was effected in the southern states by a law passed by congress in 1865 during the civil war. Brazil's way was the best, which made free every child of a slave born after a certain date.

Jefferson, in his Notes on Virginia, speaks of a little gold found on the Rappahannock, and lead, intermixed with silver, on the Kanhaway. The ore was hauled to the river, taken across in canoes and again by wagons to the furnace and pounding-mill, which were distant one mile from the mine. The same writer also speaks of the lead mines in Cumberland, below the mouth of Red river and those of Mississippi above Rock River. James River were copper mines and also “on the Ouabache below the upper Wiaw." Many ironworks were then in operation on James River and in the mountains, as well as Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Ohio.

Richmond, the historic capital of Virginia, stands on a group of hills, and is full of monuments and other objects of interest. Hundreds of manufactories, driven by power from the fall of the James River, send forth flour, paper, fertilizers, tobacco, and articles in iron. Norfolk has a spacious harbor and all the appurtenances of a fine commercial city.

Many minor resources were found on the American seaboards,—oysters in Chesapeake bay, lobsters and cod on the New England coast, salmon in the rivers flowing into the Pacific, and sponges on the Florida reef. The city of Key West, standing on a small coral island the southernmost land in the United States, occupies herself, next after cigar making, in sponge fishing, in which industry 350 craft of all sizes up to a 50-ton schooner are engaged. All along the western coast of Florida, in the waters of the gulf, grow the fine sheep's wool, or bath sponges, while at Tampa bay are found the large Anclote grass sponge. With an iron hook, having three long curved teeth and a slender wooden handle from 30 to 60 feet in length, the sponge is torn from the depths of ocean, the operator having as an aid to his work a water-glass, consisting of a wooden bucket with a glass bottom, sunk an inch or two below the ruffled surface, and with which through the clear water the bottom may be distinctly seen.

The fishing is from a small boat, which when filled is emptied into a schooner lying at anchor nearby, which in turn discharges her cargo ashore, where it is thrown into a pen ten feet square constructed for the purpose in shallow water, there to lie for several days while the contents of the cells decompose. The sponges are then beaten with bats until cleared of all animal matter, when they are washed, dried, bleached, baled, weighed, and sold at auction, sales being held at the wharf every day at three o'clock. One half of the proceeds go to the fisherman, and one half to the owner of the vessel, who furnishes all that is required for the trip. The sponge king of Key West is A. J. Arapian, whose annual sales are about $500,000.

The soil of the southern states is as a rule good and well watered, the leading products being corn, cotton, tobacco, barley, rice, with some wheat, sugarcane, rye, hemp, hops, and beans; yet almost every plant on earth will grow somewhere in this favored region. The wild animals of the Gulf States are for the most part small, reptiles and birds large and abundant, many of the latter of brilliant plumage. In the swamps of Georgia is much fine timber, cedar, oak and hickory, walnut, maple and spruce. The larger quadrupeds are found northward. Alligators and turtles are conspicuous. The blue-grass region of Kentucky is noted for its fine stock, particularly horses. At Spring Station, twenty miles from Lexington, is the famous Woodburn breeding farm of A. J. Alexander. Henry Clay's monument is one of the ornaments of Lexington, a city of beautiful aspect and busy industry, having tobacco, copper, hemp, and wheel works, distilleries and flouring-mills. Louisville has a large tobacco trade, besides heavy handlings of pork, leather, flour, and farm and other implements.

The Crittenden family have been among the most prominent in Kentucky during the past century. John Crittenden, a major in the revolutionary war, came from Virginia. His eldest son graduated at William and Mary College and became a noted lawyer and statesman. Two sons of John J. Crittenden were officers in the civil war, one on either side. The Blair family have been prominent in public life or as wealthy planters, for a century or so,—Francis P. Blair of Virginia, of Hampton Roads conference fame; his son F. P. Blair, of Kentucky, army general and statesman, and Montgomery Blair, also born in Kentucky, lawyer and prominent member of Lincoln's cabinet, all being men of considerable ability and note.

Forests originally covered Kentucky, Georgia, North Carolina, and other states, considerable areas of which are still standing. Forestry may be profitably studied at Biltmore, the estate of George W. Vanderbilt in North Carolina, consisting of 5,000 acres devoted to forest culture. Near Biltmore forest is Pisgah forest, comprising 92,000 acres, where besides extensive lumbering operations are game preserves and outing grounds. At Asheville Mr. Vanderbilt has built a residence far exceeding in beauty and grandeur most of the palaces of the old world.

Kentucky, Virginia, Arkansas, Alabama, North Carolina, and Tennessee abound in coal and iron, and almost all the states are rich in minerals of some kind. Virginia, Georgia, and North Carolina have gold, silver, and copper, and in some places gems. Since the discovery of gold in North Carolina in 1819, many gold and copper mines have been worked, with returns of over $20,000,000. Alabama and Tennessee are second only to Pennsylvania in the production of pig iron. The manufactures of this section are iron, tobacco, leather, cotton and woolen fabrics, whiskey, and all the many local requirements of commerce, domestic life, and industrial progress. Maryland has wealth in fruit as well as in oysters. Baltimore in early times had a large shipping trade, her commerce extending to every part of the globe. The oyster town of Crisfield, on the Chesapeake, is built on oyster-shells and sends away for the season, September to May, besides crabs and fish, 25,000 barrels of shell and 300,000 gallons of shucked oysters. West- over, 16 miles away, ships whole trains of berries; and thus one may go the length of the land and find some profitable specialty in every place. In this vicinity are the Arlington, Workingtown, and Westover mansions, the last being of English brick, now owned by Samuel Wilson.

South of latitude 37 degrees and east of the Rocky mountains are found the more profitable cotton fields of the United States, although cotton is grown outside of these limits. It was at one time held that without slave labor this industry could not be made profitable, but it has been proved a fallacy. There are in all not far short of 500 mills whose annual product approximates to $80,000,000. Sugarcane was brought from the West Indies to the United States and planted on the Mississippi above New Orleans in 1751. The growth of the industry was slow, the cane being at first ground by cattle, steam-grinding beginning in 1822. In 1747 it was discovered that certain beets contained about six percent sugar, and a beet-sugar factory was established in France in 1810. Not very successful were the attempts at first made in the United States, but in 1839 at Northampton, Massachusetts, were made 1,300 pounds of beet sugar, and a factory was set in operation at Chatsworth, Illinois, in 1863. The Alvarado Sugar company was organized in California in 1870, and later works were established in Los Angeles county and elsewhere. Florida is a level country, part swampy, less than one half the state being available for cultivation. Products here are much the same as in the dry lands of California, being chiefly oranges, figs, pineapples, and walnuts. Forests abound. The prominent industry of Key West is the manufacture of cigars, mostly from Havana tobacco. Corn also is raised in Florida, and potatoes abound. Tallahassee, the capital of the state, is a garden embedded in flowers. Henry Disston, of Florida, made some millions selling his own saws; his son Hamilton increased his inheritance to 1,000,000 acres of land, a $450,000 sugar mill, ten miles of private railroad, and other property. Jackson, the capital of Mississippi, is a well-built and beautiful city. Natchez has extensive cotton mills.

The scheme of John Law to develop the resources of the Louisiana country, which arose in 1717 and collapsed in 1720, was a great affair. It was given out at the time that the country was enormously rich in precious metals, and everything else that was precious. Incorporated as the Company of the West, with 200,000 shares of 500 livres each, and exclusive privileges of trade and coinage, afterward taking the name of the Company of the Indies, shares rose to an enormous premium. Paris was thronged, and Law's house besieged by eager applicants for the magic paper which at any price was to make them immediately rich; but when some of the cooler ones sought to realize on their shares they found the gold wanting, the bubble burst. Law fled from the country and died in Venice while eking a miserable existence by gambling. The Louisiana state lottery was one of the largest institutions of the kind in the world, its net annual profits being enormous. The drawings used to take place in the Charles Theater, New Orleans, Beauregard and Early presiding amid much ceremony, and with salaries larger than they received as generals. For some time public sentiment was against it, being regarded as a disgrace to the state, in some such way as polygamy was held to be a disgrace to Utah. The $40,000 license paid to the state was not deemed sufficient to cover the infamy; but the final blow was given by the postmaster-general, Wanamaker, who in 1890 forbid the use of the mails for lottery purposes outside the state of Louisiana, and the charter was not renewed. Thus expatriated, the great game sought a home in Mexico, but the government there had the welfare of its own lotteries to look after. Turned from the doors of Colombia and Nicaragua as well, it finally found refuge in Honduras, in consideration of $20,000 a year and 20 percent of gross returns, the base of operations in the United States being at Tampa, Florida. W. L. Cabell of Texas, and C . J. Villere of Louisiana presided at the drawings at Puerto Cortes, Honduras. Venezuela may next be asked to open its doors to the Louisiana lottery. The governor of Louisiana, Nichols, on the 7th of July, 1890, vetoed a bill passed by the local legislature accepting an offer of $1,000,000 to the state by the Louisiana Lottery company for the privilege of continuing business as in times past. This great gambling institution claimed to have sold tickets in five years to the amount of $30,000,000, and to have paid out in prizes $20,000,000, thus drawing into the pockets of the managers from those of the people, mostly the poor and thoughtless, $10,000,000. The Kentucky state lottery, which originated at Frankfort in 1838 in an attempt to raise money in this manner for schools and to construct waterworks, after passing through several phases of existence under this and other names, as the Commonwealth cash distribution company, and the Frankfort lottery, finally disappeared.

Unique scenes in and around New Orleans are the cotton levee, the French market, the street of the dead, Jackson square, the cypress swamp, old plantation homes, cane and cotton fields and sugar houses. The opera has great attractions, particularly with the French and Creole population. To the University of Louisiana Paul Tulane gave $2,000,000, and the name was changed to Tulane University. A Louisville lady gave this institution $200,000 for a college for girls, and Miss Annie Howard erected the Howard memorial library. New Orleans does a large business in fertilizers, besides rice-cleaning and sugar-refining, and leather and tobacco works. In southwest Louisiana is a farm of 1,500,000 acres, with railroads, steamboats, and telegraph lines, the property of a northern syndicate.

Tennessee was originally held to be part of the territory granted by Charles II to the colony of North Carolina. The French were there, however, when English settlers first crossed the Appalachian Mountains, their claim to ownership being somewhat mixed with that of the Spaniards. All this was settled in due time by the final supremacy of the English. David Crockett, born at Limestone in 1786, assisted with other Tennesseans in achieving the independence of Texas. The manufacturing resources of Tennessee are very great; cotton and woolen mills have increased many fold in number, while grain-growing and grist mills have assumed large proportions.

Nashville, the capital, has the usual state buildings, and is an educational center, as in addition to the Vanderbilt University, elsewhere mentioned, there are the Central Tennessee College, and the Fisk and Roger Williams universities. Cotton and tobacco stand first among industries, though among manufactures are also distilleries, and furniture, oil, paper, and machine works. Memphis is a beautiful city, filled with fine public and private buildings. Its manufactories are in oil, spirits, flour, and machinery, while the chief commerce is in cotton.

The District of Columbia consists of 64 square miles under the direct control of congress, the municipal affairs of Washington and Georgetown being regulated by three commissioners. Since Washington laid the corner stone of the capitol in 1793, the government has spent $70,000,000 on public buildings and grounds. Besides the many schools and churches, there are two universities, the Columbian, Baptist, and the Howard for freedmen. The Washington monument is 555 feet high and cost $1,500,000. The dome of the capitol ranks fifth in height and fourth in diameter of all the domes in the world. The bronze doors at the east entrance cost $28,000; the six large paintings in the rotunda cost $74,000. Senator Sherman and others became quite wealthy buying city property before the improvements. The Cumberland and Georgetown canal is the oldest in the country. Side by side with the railway the telegraph has made its way in the United States. Since the experiments of Joseph Henry in 1827, later secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and the inventions and operations of Morse, the little line from Washington to Baltimore, built in 1843, has been extended in every direction, until it now reaches many times around the world. Gradually the rival lines, east and west, consolidated, until now the business is principally in the hands of the Western Union and the Postal, the former having several thousand miles of wire, with 21,000 offices, and a capital stock of $80,000,000.

Since 1840 the American Association for the Advancement of Science has had being with migratory proclivities, geologists and naturalists meeting at stated intervals and places, as in Boston in 1847, and Philadelphia in 1848, with Massachusetts state incorporation and a permanent secretary at Salem in 1874. Somewhat similar associations were the National Institution for the Promotion of Science and the Useful Arts, organized at Washington, in 1840, by act of congress, for the purpose of collecting scientific material wherewith to found a national museum, and since defunct, and the National Academy of Sciences incorporated at Washington by congress in 1863 in order to solve scientific questions laid at its feet by government. But most important of all is the Smithsonian Institution, founded by act of congress, in 1846, in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson, an English scientist, who died at Genoa in 1829, bequeathing to the United States a sum which when received by the government in 1838 amounted to $515,169, "to found at Washington under the name of the Smithsonian Institution an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.” By 1881 the endowment had increased to $720,000, and it was determined to limit its increase to $1,000,000. In order to receive and properly care for the material collected by the Wilkes exploring expedition, the National Museum was instituted in 1842, but this museum was in 1858 placed under the care of the Smithsonian Institution. Baltimore has many religious and educational institutions, among them the University of Maryland, the Maryland Academy of Science, Baltimore College, and Johns Hopkins hospitals and university. It is called the monumental city, by reason of its monuments,—one to Washington erected on ground given for the purpose by John E. Howard in 1815; one to Edgar A. Poe; others called Battle, Wildey, and Wells and McComas monuments . Johns Hopkins, farmer lad, grocery clerk, storekeeper, bank president, and founder in Baltimore of the institution which bears his name, and to which he left $7,000,000, was born in 1795 of Quaker stock, and was assisted on his road to fortune by a Quaker uncle. Mary E. Garrett gave Johns Hopkins University $350,000 for a woman's medical department. In 1853 was organized the Elliot Society of Natural History, of Charleston, and the same year the New Orleans Academy of Science.

Not only a wealthy planter, but a man of political influence in South Carolina, and regarded by friends and enemies alike with consideration and respect, was Joseph Alston, who in 1800 married Theodosia, the beautiful and accomplished daughter of Aaron Burr.

Alston was afterward governor of the state. At Columbia, the capital of South Carolina, four railways come together. The Congaree River has a width of 1,800 feet and a fall of 36 feet within city limits. The town as laid out is two miles square, and there are present the buildings of the state and United States, opera-house, college, university, and agricultural and mechanical college for whites, while at Orangeburg is the Claflin University for blacks. Charleston, one of the principal southern seaports, receives and sends forth quantities of cotton, rice, timber, and manufactured phosphates for fertilization, foreign trade being mostly with the West Indies, England, and Germany. There are wharf facilities for 200 vessels. Savannah, Georgia, the other chief seaport of the southern seaboard, has many historic buildings and statues, among the latter being one of General Green, and of Liberty in memory of Count Pulaski, who fell here in 1779. There is a Trade and Cotton exchange, and commerce and manufactures in iron wood, flour, rice, cotton, paper, and furniture. Raleigh, the capital of North Carolina, has a fine granite state-house and other state buildings; also manufactories of iron articles, machinery, cars, carriages, and agricultural implements. Atlanta, capital of Georgia, and like Richmond and many other southern cities made historic by the civil war, lies at the junction of five great valleys, and is plentifully supplied with railway facilities. A cotton exposition was held here in 1881. Montgomery, capital of Alabama, has likewise the best railway facilities, with state and federal buildings, and the usual adjuncts of commerce and manufactures. The same may be said of Mobile, the chief city and seaport of Alabama.

The progressional paralysis brought on by the civil war lasted for thirty years, and the cure cost many millions besides. The assessed value of property in 1870 was $2,100,000,000 less than in 1860, while in 1890 it was about the same as in 1860. In the north, however, the increase of property values during the decade from 1860 to 1870 was over $4,000,000,000. And the advance in the south since 1890 has been phenomenal. Though the Negro as a rule is by nature lazy and improvident, yet some of them make money. There are quite a number in the south worth from $5,000 to $20,000, and one family in Galveston, Texas, are said to have property worth $400,000. The Montgomery brothers of Mississippi have a large plantation, and raise a great quantity of cotton every year. The black men of Georgia are assessed about $40,000,000. Thus we see that development in the southern states has been very great during the last two decades of the century. In the two previous decades, from 1860 to 1880, the total wealth of the south depreciated at least $2,400,000,000. But from 1880 to 1890 the census report shows an increase in assessed values of $1,815,000,000, which signifies an increase in actual values of $4,000,000,000. Of the 500,000,000 acres of land in the southern states, 100,000,000 acres were under cultivation, paying a profit on investment of 24 percent per annum, as against 12 percent in other states. More than half the cotton in the world is produced here, and the grain crops are now nearly equal to the cotton crop. Since 1880 the output of coal has increased from 3,000,000 bushels to 30,000.000 bushels. The coal fields of the south cover 60,000 miles, seven times more than Great Britain has, and as much as is in Russia, Germany, France, Belgium, and Great Britain combined. A cooperative town company was organized in 1891 under the laws of Tennessee, with headquarters at Washington, authorized capital $10,000,000. United States senators and secretaries were among the directors, and the stock was at first rapidly taken up, but the scheme proved not successful. Cooperation and profit sharing were to be the principal features in developing a manufacturing city in the south, and a large town site was purchased for that purpose at Elizabethton in northern Tennessee.

During the war with Spain the southern states came again into prominence as a military parade ground, lying as they do contiguous to Cuba, and mar the scene of operations. Particularly was this the case in the vicinity of Chattanooga, where troops were massed, and at Key West, the point of departure for many of the warships and squadrons.

The Union Station of St. Louis stands conspicuous as one of the great works, not only of Missouri but of the midcontinent states. A score and more of railway lines converge to this point, and use this structure in making their exchanges, to the great advantage of both passengers and carriers. The building was erected in 1894 on ground which once was the bed of Lake Chouteau, but reclaimed at great labor and expense. The headhouse, train-shed, power house, auxiliary buildings, interlocking plant, and operative department, afford ample facilities for conducting the large traffic which centers here, and offices for the transaction of business. Besides the usual waiting, luncheon and dining rooms, there is a hotel proper of a hundred rooms conducted on the European plan. The erection and management of this elegant structure is under the Terminal Railroad association, among the early presidents of which was Julius S. Walsh, one of the foremost citizens and among the most enterprising men of St. Louis. A native of St. Louis, he attended the university, studied law, and was admitted to practice. Early in his career railways attracted his attention, first in 1870 the street railway system of St. Louis, and later in most of the lines that ran out of the city. In these as well as in banks and trust companies, he was conspicuous as president or director, and so became a powerful factor in the progress of the city and of the state.

A prominent railway president was D. B. Robinson, native of New England, and his early training of a kind conducive to the promotion of steady habits, sturdy character, and that kind of industrious application which wins success in any calling. He received a public school education, which ended when he was sixteen years of age, and his business career began when he was eighteen. His first employment was with the Vermont Central Railroad company in the capacity of day laborer. Six months of faithfulness and efficiency won for him the position of check clerk in the freight office, and later he was made cashier. In 1868, he went to California, then to Mobile, filling important positions, and was finally called upon to undertake the building of the Sonora railroad. This road was started from Guaymas, Mexico, and built toward the United States in connection with the Santa Fe system. In the prosecution of this work, Mr. Robinson employed the few Indians and Mexicans who could be induced to work, and added to his force by bringing 200 Negroes from the south. Serious embarrassments confronted him at every turn. Construction material had to be shipped by sailing vessel round Cape Horn. The natives of Sonora were in the main unfriendly to the enterprise, and obstructed his progress in various ways. Despite the obstacles which had to be overcome, Mr. Robinson completed the work. From 1883 to 1886, he was in charge of the construction of the Mexican Central railway, and then returned to the United States to become general manager of the Atlantic and Pacific. He organized the Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railway Company, and was made its president in 1888, and constructed the line from a connection with the Atlantic and Pacific railroad at Ash Fork to Phoenix. In 1887 he became general manager of the Colorado Midland railway, a position which he retained until 1890, when he was made president of the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railroad Company. In 1892, a broader field opened for him in connection with the Santa Fe system, and he left the Texas road which he had managed for two years to become vice-president of the great corporation which owns and operates 9,900 miles of railway. In 1896, he was offered and accepted the presidency of the St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad company, and this connection brought him to St. Louis, which has since been his home. The Sonora and Mexican Central railroads with the construction of which he was prominently identified, were the pioneer railway enterprises of Mexico, the first highways of commerce between the two Republics, and the Colorado-Midland was the first standard-gauge railway built over the Rocky mountains, and one of the most remarkable engineering feats which has been attempted in the history of American railway construction.

Perhaps the most conspicuous figure in railroad affairs in Texas is E. H. R. Green, who acquired his education in New York and Vermont, graduating in the profession of law. At the age of 21, the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad elected him a director, giving him a splendid opportunity for the study of railroad problems. In 1893, he visited Texas and purchased a branch of the Houston and Texas Central Railroad, one of the most important transportation lines in the state, formerly controlled by his mother.

The same year he took charge of the Texas Midland railroad, and was elected its president, thus becoming the youngest railroad president in the United States. He has one of the most elegant private cars in the world, equipped throughout with the latest devices for comfort, and lighted by electricity; he can well afford to do this, for instead of being tedious the travel is a luxury. This car, to a great extent, is his home and is so arranged that in it he transacts, with his private secretary, much of his private, railroad, and political business. As a politician, Mr. Green has been very successful. He was elected state chairman of the republican party of Texas in 1896. At that time the total republican vote of the state was only fifty-five thousand, but three months afterwards, through his untiring energy and devotion to the cause he represented, the vote increased to one hundred and sixty-two thousand.

One of the directors of the St. Louis Trust company, vice-president of the Missouri Electric Light company, president of the Conduit company, a director of the Laclede Gas Light company, of the Edison Illuminating company, of the Phoenix Carbon company, and of the Granite Mountain Mining company, is J. C. Van Blarcom, who is also a member and president of the Cuivre Hunting club, a member of the St. Louis, the Country, the Noonday and Mercantile clubs of St. Louis, and also a member of the Union , and New York clubs of New York city. He is one in whom St. Louis is proud to recognize as one of its prominent citizens. He was born and educated in New Jersey, and started out in business there, later entering the Bank of Commerce in St. Louis as head accountant, soon becoming cashier.

Charles D. McLure, whose name is known and respected far beyond the confines of the city of St. Louis, ranks among the descendants of revolutionary heroes in the Missouri Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, as the great grandson of Richard McLure, who gave over seven years of his life to the cause of his country in the war of independence. Richard McLure, a native of Pennsylvania, in 1775, enlisted at Carlisle, in Captain William Hendrick's company of the Pennsylvania Rifle Battalion under command of Colonel Thompson. His company left Carlisle in July, 1775, under orders for Cambridge, Massachusetts, where they arrived in August, and joined the expedition against Quebec under Colonel Benedict Arnold. Arriving before Quebec in December they encountered the enemy on the thirty-first of that month, when Captain Hendrick was slain and his men taken prisoners. In August, 1776, Richard McLure, with other prisoners, was exchanged and at once re-enlisted under General Wayne, with whom he served in Georgia, participating in the victory at Sharon and the following triumphal entry into Savannah. He remained with the colors throughout the whole of the struggle, and when the arms of the patriots were crowned with victory, received an honorable discharge at Philadelphia after over seven years' service. He afterward settled at Wheeling, of which place he became an honored citizen. His son, H. D. McLure, married Margaret Hills, from whom descended William McLure, father of Charles D. McLure. W. R. McLure's personality was well known in St. Louis, with which city he became prominently identified, and where he died in 1852. He married Margaret A. E. Parkinson, descendant of a Virginia family, who was president of the Daughters of the Confederacy. Parkinson McLure, brother of Charles D. McLure, served in the confederate army, and in 1863 found a soldier's grave. Charles D. McLure was born in Carrollton, educated in St. Louis, and at the age of fifteen years went to the far west, where he engaged in the freighting business in Nebraska, Colorado, Utah, and Montana. His knowledge of human nature and judicious business methods enabled him to handle men and property successfully and profitably, and when, later, mining attracted his attention as offering a larger and better field for his operations, success still attended him. He was the originator of the Granite and Bimetallic Mining and Milling companies of Montana, of which he was one of the principal owners, and was largely interested in many other important enterprises. In 1881 he returned to St. Louis, where he became director and vice-president of the Lindell Railroad Company, and director of the Bank of Commerce of St. Louis, and of the St. Louis Trust company. Ranking amongst the wealthy citizens of the state he is to be honored as the architect of his own fortunes, the fruit of which he enjoys with a conscience untroubled and a character unblemished, and his success in life has redounded not only to his own credit but to the welfare of others. During the exciting times incident to the civil war, Mrs. Margaret McLure was arrested and held a prisoner in her house, in St. Louis, until 1863, when she was banished, with a number of others, and sent to Columbus, Mississippi, by flag of truce. Her reception there, and the kind hospitality of friends in the south, became one of her most pleasant memories. After the fall of Vicksburg, the parole camp of the confederate army was on the plantation of General Nathan Bryan Whitfield, in Demopolis, Alabama, and when the men of the First Missouri brigade heard of Mrs. McLure's banishment. Lieutenant Hall was dispatched to Columbus to bring her to camp.

When the war ended she returned to St. Louis, and subsequently went to Montana, to her son, Charles D. McLure, who was then prospecting in the Granite Mountains. Removed from all intercourse with the world, she became interested in the miner and his life, and was soon enshrined in their sturdy hearts as a friend in sickness and health. Her eyes used to sparkle as she spoke of the glories of her mountain home.

A fine example of a St. Louis merchant was William L. Huse, a native of Danville, Vermont. His father was John Huse, a descendant of one of the early colonists of Massachusetts, who settled at Newburyport about 1635. His ancestors were numbered among the revolutionary patriots, his maternal grandfather. Ira Colby, fighting in the battle of Ticonderoga under Ethan Allen. When William L. Huse was seven years of age, his parents removed to the little city of Chicago, which had then a population of less than five thousand. There he grew up, obtaining a good English education in the public schools, and fitting himself for commercial pursuits by taking a course in one of the pioneer commercial colleges of that city. When he was seventeen years old he became a clerk in the grocery house of H. G. Loomis, of Chicago, and had three years of practical training for the business of merchandising in that capacity. He then became connected with the forwarding and commission house of Isaac D. Harmon and company of Peru, Illinois, and was given charge of a steamer engaged in the Illinois river trade. That he had a genius for trade and that he had learned early in life the lessons of industry and economy, conducive to thrift and prosperity, is attested by the fact that, in 1858, his accumulated earnings enabled him to purchase the boat of which he had charge, and enter into the transportation business on his own account. When he was twenty-five years of age, he owned three steamers plying on the Illinois river, and a year later he came to St. Louis and organized the firm of Huse, Loomis and company, which engaged in the ice and transportation business in that city. For nineteen years thereafter, the firm continued in existence as at first organized, uniformly successful in its operations and building up a business of large proportions. In the year last named, the important interests involved prompted the owners and managers of the business to incorporate it under the name of the Huse and Loomis Ice and Transportation Company, with a capital of $550,000. Of this corporation, Mr. Huse became president. The principal feature of the business has been the supplying of ice to the people of St. Louis, and for this purpose, large storage houses were built by the company at various points on the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, and the annual harvests of ice are transported to this and other markets in boats owned and operated by the company. At Peru, Illinois, it harvests annually from 75,000 to 100,000 tons of ice, a still larger amount at Alton, and ice crops gathered at Beardstown, Illinois, and Louisiana, Missouri, add largely to its yearly product. During the ice gathering season, it employs regularly more than two thousand men, and a small army of persons are furnished employment in connection with this industry during the year. Mr. Huse is also president of the Creve Coeur Ice company, a stockholder and director in the Crystal Plate Glass company, a stockholder and director in the Peru Plow and Wheel company, president of the Union Dairy company, a director in the Boatmen's Bank and in the St. Louis Trust company, and a stockholder in various other financial, commercial, and manufacturing enterprises.

A radical departure from the accustomed mode of transportation between the ports of St. Louis and New Orleans was made in the spring of 1866 by a company chartered under the name of Mississippi Valley Transportation company. The object was the handling of freight by barges in large quantities in order to secure a reduction of rates , and make successful competition with railways , which were then beginning to encroach upon the territory tributary to the river. Another feature of the enterprise upon which the incorporators relied, -not alone for a satisfactory return of profits, but as well for the upbuilding of the grain market for the city of St. Louis - , was the facility thus inaugurated for carrying grain in bulk for export via New Orleans. In 1880 an opposition barge company- was organized; but the two companies were united in September, 1881. The commercial interests of St. Louis , together with a large area of the grain producing territory of the Mississippi valley, became deeply indebted to the barge enterprise, not only for the facilities afforded , but also for the grain ventures in which they engaged at the outset in order to test the feasibility of the southern route, and thus over- come the prejudice and doubt existing as to climatic influence . The fleet of the St. Louis St. Louis and Mississippi Valley Transportation company, consists of ten powerful towing steamers, and some eighty barges, the capacity of the latter averaging 1,500 tons each. The usual tow comprises six or seven barges, thus aggregating during a fair stage of the river from 8,000 to 9,000 tons.

Beginning at the southwest corner of Seventh and Spruce streets, is a group of tall, imposing buildings known as the Cupples station blocks. These buildings seven or eight in number, covering about three hundred thousand square feet in ground area, lie on both sides of the mouth of the Terminal association tunnel , thus connecting with all of the St. Louis and east St. Louis railroads, and extend along the tracks of the Grand Southern and Western trunk lines, namely, the Iron Mountain, San Francisco, and Missouri Pacific railroads. Owing to the peculiar physical conditions here existing, in conjunction with the St. Louis Terminal association system, found in no other city in this country, it has been made possible to gather together a large number of the heaviest shippers, and to so construct buildings for them in this very heart of the city, that a single package of merchandise may be received and shipped to any railroad point in the United States from the back doors, without the customary delay and expense attendant upon the old drayage system. This is accomplished by numerous switches, or side tracks, extending from the various railroads centering here, through all parts of the basements or cellars of the Cupples station buildings, and which are connected with the upper floors or shipping levels by means of powerful hydraulic elevators, the goods being handled to and from the cars on several thousand trucks, the entire expense of switching, loading, and unloading of goods being borne by the various roads in proportion to the tonnage they receive and deliver. Cupples station is the name of the depot located here, and it has been estimated that about 1,000 tons of merchandise are received and shipped from this station daily, which is probably more merchandise than is handled at any railroad freight depot in the United States. It is impossible to adequately describe the scene of activity that takes place at Cupples station upon the arrival and departure of trains laden with the manifold products of merchandise received on one hand from every quarter of the country and destined on the other to every town and city in the railway shippers' guide. In the upper level shipping department of the station, about thirty thousand square feet in area, it is at times well nigh impossible for those unaccustomed to wend their way through the numerous piles of merchandise, but which under the experienced hands of many porters or truckmen, melt away and grow again as if by magic. It is a sight that no visitor to St. Louis should miss, it being strictly indicative of this great commercial age in which we live. Among the numerous economies furnished to the tenants in Cupples station blocks, may be mentioned those of labor, operation of elevators, elimination of expense of drayage, saving of waste and damage to goods in handling, and further economy in light, heat, and steam, owing to the location on the premises of an immense electric and steam heating plant owned and operated by the St. Louis Terminal Cupples Station and Property company. The St. Louis Brewing association was organized in 1889, to run for fifty years, with capital stock and first mortgage bonds of $10,500,000.

Of the Chouteaus, Auguste, who landed at the site of St. Louis on the fifteenth of February, 1764, was first. John Pierre Chouteau was born in New Orleans in 1758, and came to St. Louis, where he died in 1849. His son Pierre was the first Chouteau born in St. Louis. When he was seventeen years of age, Pierre accompanied Julian Dubuque up the Mississippi to the lead mines where afterward was located the city of Dubuque, Iowa. Three years later, in 1809, he went with his father and brother on a trading expedition to the upper Missouri. The first brick house west of the Mississippi was built by Berthold, brother-in-law of Pierre Chouteau junior, the two using the structure as store in which they did business in partnership. At the end of seven years the general merchandise was closed, the trade in furs continuing until 1865. Meanwhile, in 1853, Mr. Chouteau established rolling mills in St. Louis, after having purchased the mines in St Francois County, and established the American Iron Mountain company. Charles Pierre Chouteau, born in 1819, was the fourth son of Pierre Chouteau junior. He was educated in the academy which has since become the St. Louis University, becoming proficient in civil engineering, and later in military tactics. Born to Charles Pierre Chouteau in 1849 was Pierre Chouteau, great grandson of the founder of St. Louis, and who became the fitting representative of this honored house. Beginning his education in St. Louis, it was continued at Liege, Belgium, where he entered the royal school of arts mines and manufacture. In 1874 he returned to America; he practiced his profession at St. Louis, while assisting his father in the management of the estate. Thus favored of fortune, Mr. Pierre Chouteau has, during his entire life, been a conspicuous figure, not only in his native city, but throughout the entire midcontinent of America, filling his proud position in such a manner as to add new luster to the name passed on to him from an illustrious ancestry.

Prominent in his day as a man of affairs was Samuel C. Christy, who married a daughter of Nicholas Jarrot, one of the most distinguished of the French colonists of the Illinois country. Born in France, Nicholas Jarrot came to the United States at the time of the revolution of 1792, which plunged his native land into anarchy and disorder, and in 1794 he established his home in Cahokia. Within a few years after coming to this country, he acquired a fortune as a merchant and trader, and became the owner of a large landed estate. He was a leading spirit in shaping the influences which invited immigration to southern Illinois and northern Missouri, and in that sense helped to lay the foundations of the two great commonwealths. A liberty-loving Frenchman, he found in free America a congenial atmosphere, and readily adapted himself to the new conditions by which he was surrounded.

He was a staunch friend and supporter of the government of the United States in establishing its authority over the territory embraced in both the states of Illinois and Missouri, and was major of a battalion of St. Clair county militia which, at the beginning of the present century, rendered valuable services in protecting the French and American settlements against the depredations of hostile Indians. His home in Cahokia erected in 1796 and long known as the Jarrot mansion, was the first house built of brick in the Mississippi valley, and was one of the wonders of its day. Nearly all the materials of which it was constructed were imported and along with these materials came the workmen who laid the walls. Still in a fair state of preservation at the end of more than a century of existence, this historic homestead is now the property of Mrs. Mary F. Scanlan, daughter of Samuel C. Christy. In this old homestead Mrs. Scanlan was born. Reared in the Catholic Church, she was educated at the convent of the Visitation, of St. Louis, and soon after leaving school entered upon a brilliant social career. In 1858, she married Lieutenant John R. Church, of the United States army, who had shortly before that graduated from West Point, and soon afterward went with her husband to Fort Washita, a military post in the Indian Territory at which he was stationed until near the breaking out of the civil war. When the conflict between the states began, Lieutenant Church resigned his commission in the army and tendered his services to the confederate government. The tender was accepted and he was commissioned a colonel of volunteers and assigned to staff duty. In this capacity he served, winning distinction as a brave and chivalrous officer, until the second year of the war, when death ended his brilliant and promising career. His wife, who had accompanied him to the south, sought after his death to return with her two infant sons to her old home in St. Louis, but it took six weeks to accomplish her purpose, and but for the fact that she had many friends in both armies, and exercised infinite tact in bringing to bear influences which obtained for her a passage through the lines, she would doubtless have had to remain much longer in close proximity to the scene of hostilities. Returning to her old home, saddened by the affliction which had fallen upon her, she found a measure of consolation in church and charitable work, and thus linked her name with public institutions to which she has since been both friend and benefactress. At the close of the war, when the southern people found themselves in a veritable valley of the shadow, she was one of the noble women of St. Louis who set on foot the movement which resulted in the holding of the great southern relief fair, through which aid was extended to thousands of the sufferers. In later years, she has been a zealous member of the Daughters of the Confederacy. She was one of the organizers of a movement conducted by ladies which lifted a heavy debt from the church of the Annunciation, at the corner of Sixth Street and Chouteau Avenue, and also assisted in erecting the school building connected with this church. She was one of the originators of the movement which resulted in the building of the Augusta free hospital, later called Martha Parsons hospital, for the care of indigent sick children. For many years she was president of the Visitation Convent Sodality of Cabanne place, and also of the Sacred Heart Sodality. The building of the new catholic cathedral was facilitated by her substantial aid and encouragement, and every enterprise designed to better social and moral conditions in St. Louis has had her earnest sympathy and hearty support.

After seven years of widowhood, she married, in 1869, James J. Scanlan, a native of Philadelphia, who had been for some years prominent in the business circles of St. Louis. Five children were born of their union, and in later years, Mrs. Scanlan went abroad with her family and resided five years in the old world, educating her sons. Returning to St. Louis at the end of that time, she resumed a leadership which she had long enjoyed in social circles, and for which her graces and accomplishments eminently fitted her. Her home has always been one of the principle centers of the most refined and highly cultivated society of St. Louis, and on numerous occasions it has been the scene of great social functions. An event of both historic and social interest of the highest character was the reception and ball given by Mrs. Scanlan at her beautiful home, 3535 Lucas Avenue, December 12, 1881, to the descendants of the French officers who had fought with the duke de Rochambeau, the duke de Grasse, and General Lafayette under the command of Washington in the war of independence. These French military and naval officers were the guests of the nation, to assist in the celebration of the centenary anniversary of the surrender of Yorktown. The members of the delegation who, after the celebration, visited St. Louis were: General Boulanger, representing the French Army; Colonel Bossan, of the dragoons; Captain Sigismond de Sahune, of the hussars; Captain Gouvelloe , of the artillery, whose grandfather directed the artillery at Yorktown; the two brothers Aboville, captains in the cavalry; the Count Charles d’Ollone, and the Viscount Victor d'Ollone, his son; Colonel Octave Bureaux de Pusy, Maximilien de Sahune and his brother Sigismond, the three last mentioned grandsons and grandnephews of General Lafayette; and the Marquis de Lestrade, grandson of a naval officer under De Grasse. Captain Henru de la Chere, military attache of the brench legation at Washington, chaperoned the party during their entire tour through the United States. At the first visit the French delegates made to St. Louis, they were invited on the floor of the Merchants' Exchange, where both General Boulanger and Colonel de Pusy made eloquent speeches. Among the things General Boulanger said, this fact was mentioned: "We have visited no city in the United States but once but to show our affection for St. Louis after our visit to California, instead of going by the Southern Pacific to New Orleans, we shall return to St. Louis to accept the charming invitation of a reception and ball tendered to us by Madame Scanlan.” All the officers stationed at the barracks who had also given their French comrades-in-arms as reception and luncheon, were invited to Mrs. Scanlan’s house. All the elite of French and American society were invited.

It was a noted and striking fact that nearly all the American ladies invited spoke French. The late George M. Pullman tendered to Mr. Emile Karst, French consular agent in St. Louis, the use of a palace car for the delegation on their intended visit to New Orleans. On the arrival of the delegates in St. Louis, the French citizens gave them a reception and a banquet at the St. Louis club. In January following, the delegation returned to France. In their correspondence, in later years, with their St. Louis friends, they referred with pleasure to the delightful ball at Mrs.. Scanlan’s as the most enjoyable entertainment given to them in the United States.

At her home, too, Mrs. Cleveland was a guest on the occasion of the President’s visit to St. Louis during the administration of Mayor David R. Francis, and the reception given by Mrs. Scanlan in Mrs. Cleveland's honor was the distinguishing feature of the entertainment planned for the first lady of the land at that time. Another social event which delighted the best society of St. Louis was that which attended the formal entrance into society of her only daughter. Miss Marie Therese Christy Scanlan, a charming young lady, who completed her education at the convent of the Visitation of Georgetown, and returned to her home in 1897. The other children of Mrs. Scanlan are Alonzo Christy Church, one of two sons born of her first marriage, and Phillippe Christy and Andre Christy Scanlan, born of her second marriage.

Shepard Barclay, jurist and judge, is a product of the modern west, and his career illustrates the progress and achievements of the generation of natives whose youth was spent under the influence of those sturdy pioneers who, within the span of a few decades, caused the western wilderness to blossom with the refinements of a fresh and vigorous civilization. He was born in St. Louis in 1847, and is a grandson of the late Elihu H. Shepard, one of the early American settlers in St. Louis. Captain Shepard was a soldier in the war of 1812, and served in the American expedition against Canada. In the Mexican war he was a captain of Missouri volunteers, and took part in the invasion of Mexico in 1847. He was a citizen of public spirit, as his handsome gift of the Shepard school property to the public school board attests. He was one of the most efficient teachers of his day, and he gave his grandson the first instruction he received in the classics. Shepard Barclay's education was begun in the public schools of St. Louis. From the high school he passed to the St. Louis University, where he was graduated in 1867. He commenced the study of law in that year at the University of Virginia, where Professor John B. Minor, author of the Institutes, was one of his preceptors. While there he was elected president of the Jefferson society. He received his degree in law in 1869, and in the same year started to Europe, where he remained until 1872. During that period he spent two sessions at the University of Berlin in the study of the Civil Law, under the guidance of Drs. Gneist and Bruns, and devoted considerable time to German and French. In St. Louis he was professionally connected with the press as editorial contributor, during the early days of his law practice. In 1873 he formed a partnership with William C. Marshall (afterward one of the judges of the supreme court of Missouri) which continued until the election of Mr. Barclay in 1882 as circuit judge. From 1877 to the time of his election as judge he took an active part in the organization and development of the St. Louis military, as captain of the Lafayette guard, a company which attained a high degree of proficiency during his command. After nearly six years' service on the circuit bench, he received the democratic nomination for judge of the Supreme Court, and was elected to that office in 1888. In January, 1897, he was chosen chief justice by his associates. In the early part of 1898 he resigned and returned to the practice of law in the city of St. Louis as a member of the copartnership of McKeighan, Barclay and Watts, which enjoys a large share of public confidence and has a recognized position among the best law firms in Missouri.