Miserliness is a capital quality to run in families; it’s the safe side for madness to dip on. This inalienable habit of saving, as an end in itself, belonged to the industrious men of business of a former generation, who made their fortunes slowly, almost as the of the fox belongs to the harrier—it constituted them a race which is nearly lost in these days of rapid money-getting, when lavishness comes close on the back of want. In old-fashioned times, an independence was hardly ever made without a little miserliness as a condition, and you would have found that quality in every provincial district, combined with characters as various as the fruits from which we can extract acid.
L’extreme avarice se meprend presque toujours; il n’y a point de passion qui s’eloigne plus souvent de son but, ni sur qui le present ait tant de pouvoir, au prejudice de Vavenir.—La Rochefoucauld.
Or puoi, figliuol, veder la corta buffa
De'ben che son commessi alia Fortuna.
Perche I’umana gente si rabbuffa,
Che tutto I'oro, ch'e sotto la luna,
O che gia fu di queste anime stanche,
Non potrebbe farne posar una. —Dell’ Inferno.
What is gold worth, say
Worth for work or play,
Worth to keep or pay,
Hide or throw away,
Hope about or fear?
What is love worth, pray?
Worth a tear?
Golden on the mould
Lie the dead leaves rolled
Of the wet woods old.
Yellow leaves and cold,
Woods without a dove.
Gold is worth but gold;
Love's worth love.
Except Switzerland, Austria is the most mountainous of European countries, two-thirds of its surface lying 1,000 feet or more above the level of the sea. On the southwest many of the loftier summits of the Alps are 12,000 feet in height; on the east and northeast the Carpathians, 650 miles in length, range from 3,000 to 8,000 feet, the Hercynian and other chains being also included among the highlands which form a portion of the great watershed of Europe. Yet much of this mountain area is productive, vineyards covering many of the foothills, while cereals are raised up to an elevation of 4,000 feet, beyond which are forests of oak and elm, though in some regions, especially in Tyrol and Styria, is a wilderness of peaks and precipices, a region of glaciers, avalanches, and perpetual snows. In few countries is there a greater diversity of climate and natural products. Summer stays long on the southern plains, and in winter frosts are light and infrequent, unsheltered tropical plants being raised in southern Dalmatia. In the central provinces the seasons are more strongly marked, and in the north the winters are protracted and severe, the temperature falling to zero even as far south as Vienna. Vegetation is varied and rich; there is an arctic as well as a tropical flora, a flora of the mountains and the hills, and a flora of the marshes and the plains, representing in all about 13,000 species. In the fauna are included, among other animals, the wild goat, deer, and boar; the hare, beaver, otter, and bear; while rivers, lakes, and sea-coast abound in fish of nearly 400 varieties. Minerals are widely distributed, and in deposits of economic value are the precious and most of the useful metals, with an abundance of building and ornamental stones.
Such is the country which, after three or four centuries of Roman domination, was occupied by a succession of barbaric tribes almost until its annexation to Germany in 955, by Otho I, after whom ruled as margraves the Bambergs or Badenberg dynasty until the middle of the thirteenth century. Then comes a period of disputed succession, Rudolph of Hapsburg, after a series of wars with the female branch of the Bambergs, finally remaining master of the field, and in 1282 enfeoffing his sons Rudolf and Albert with the duchies of Austria and Styria. Thus was founded the Hapsburg line of sovereigns, to which belongs the present monarch, Francis Joseph, emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Albert V, who married the daughter of Sigismund, being the first to obtain the crowns of Hungary and Bohemia, present, however, to be for a time disunited.
Passing over the intervening period, we find Austria, at the close of the war of the Succession, one of the most powerful of European monarchies, with nearly 200,000 square miles of territory 30,000,000 inhabitants and a revenue of 14,000,000 florins a year. With the aid of English gold and an English army under Marlborough, she had emerged victorious from the struggle, receiving from Spain large accessions of territory in the Netherlands and in Italy, while England received as her share of the spoils the islands of Gibraltar and Minorca. Then comes a war with the Turks, followed by further accessions, soon to be lost to the Hapsburgs, together with nearly all that Prince Eugene had acquired by his numerous campaigns. Thus war follows war, the seven years' struggle against Frederick the Great resulting in no territorial changes, though costing nearly a million of human lives, and plunging the nations of Europe into debt, Austria's national burden amounting to 160,000,000 florins. The season of peace which ensued was used by Maria Theresa in promoting the welfare of her people, in developing industries and commerce, in establishing an educational system, in relieving hardships, and in improving the condition of the serfs.
Of Maria Theresa, Carlyle remarks that no nobler woman ever lived, and of her son and successor, Joseph II, that he was a man of very high qualities but much too conscious of them. The latter gave himself to the work of reform with a zeal that altogether outran his discretion, well intended but premature measures, especially the abolition of convents and of feudal vassalage, arousing a general feeling of uneasiness and discontent. The outbreak of the French revolution, followed by the execution of Marie Antoinette, sister of the reigning sovereign, was the signal for a war which, with brief intermissions, lasted until the abdication of Napoleon in 1814. For several years the result was in doubt, victory inclining to either side until Bonaparte appeared upon the scene. Then came disasters in quick succession; for the Austrian commanders were no match for the great general, nor did they understand his tactics. "This young Frenchman," growled Wurmser, "is a perfect blockhead, and knows nothing of the rules of war. Now he is on our right flank; now on our left, and then in our rear, anywhere in fact except where he ought to be." No doubt. The Austrian had yet to learn the secret of Bonaparte's success,—to strike the enemy unexpectedly and at his weakest point; to attack his armies in detail, and always to assemble at the point of attack a larger force than was opposed to him.
The Austrians fought bravely, and even when lighting against the army of Italy, probably the bravest troops in the world, the scales of fortune frequently hung in the balance. Had they been led by greater or opposed by inferior captains the result would have been different; but Wurmser, Melas, the archduke Charles, and others who held command were too slow in their movements, and knew not how to take advantage of opportunities. At the island of Lobau, for instance, the French, cut off by the flooding of the Danube, lay almost at their mercy; but secretly preparing a number of bridges, Napoleon threw across the river in a single night an army of 120,000 men with 300 pieces of artillery, and a day or two later the battle of Wagram laid the empire at his feet.
So it was on other occasions; at Rivoli, Marengo, and especially at Ulm, where a relieving force pushed rapidly forward might have averted surrender. "The Austrians are excellent troops," said their conqueror, "but they do not understand the value of minutes.”
By the treaties of Campo Formio, Luneville, Presburg, and Vienna, Austria lost a large portion of her most valuable possessions, and was reduced to a shadow of her former self. Had it been Napoleon’s aim to disintegrate the empire, or as with Spain and other of his conquests to bestow its crown on one of his relatives or favorites, doubtless he could have done so. Such, however, was not his purpose; but rather to place between it and France a network of subject kingdoms. Thus it was that in 1809 he addressed to the Hungarians one of those subtle yet stirring proclamations which he knew so well how to devise. "The moment has come," he said, "in which you may recover your independence. I offer you peace, the integrity of your country, your freedom, and your constitution. I want nothing from you. I only desire to see your nation free and independent. You form the finest portion of the Austrian empire, and have been treated only as a province. You have national customs and a national language; you pride yourselves on your ancient and illustrious origin. Take again your position as a nation; choose a king for yourselves who shall reign for you alone and shall dwell in your midst. A lasting peace, commercial relations, and a secured independence are the rewards that await you if you will be worthy of your ancestors and of yourselves.” But the Hungarians had no faith in his promises. They cared also more for the preservation of the Hapsburg dynasty than for their own independence, putting aside all considerations of self-interest, and making common cause against the common oppressor. Rising in arms under the archduke John, they suffered a crushing defeat, and after submitting to French requisitions and exactions, were compelled to cede a portion of their territory.
Incessant wars had brought the finances and industries of Austria and Hungary to the lowest ebb; for after every reverse the army must be recruited and its equipments replaced at whatever cost. Then there were heavy indemnities to pay, together with the spoliations of a system of war in which the spoils that belong to the victor were interpreted to mean about all that the victor could lay his hands on. In the vain attempt to maintain the military prestige of Austria no sacrifice was considered too great. The emperor raised money on his private estates; public officials relinquished their salaries or were compelled to relinquish them; provinces, corporations, and individuals contributed freely of their substance; forced loans were exacted and the duties on merchandise raised to the highest point that commerce would bear. The cost of food increased enormously, and during the blockade of the continent by English fleets such articles as coffee, tea, and sugar could not be had at any price. The public debt amounted in 1810 to 658,000,000 florins, and in this was included nearly 100,000,000 florins received in the form of British subsidies. In the previous year an order had been issued requiring the surrender of all precious metals in whatever form in exchange for government bonds and lottery tickets, and this not sufficing to pay the indemnity demanded by Napoleon, the sacred vessels of the churches were melted and cast into coin. Bank notes of all denominations, even as low as ten kreutzers, or two cents, flooded the land, until the entire issue of paper money exceeded 1,000,000,000 florins, its value rapidly decreasing to less than one-fourth of that sum. As a remedy all notes were reduced to a fifth of their nominal amount; but this only added to the distress, bringing ruin on the larger holders of national currency.
Nor were matters in better condition after the final overthrow of Napoleon in 1815, though new loans had been raised, and Austria had received nearly 50,000,000 florins as her share of the French indemnity. Finally a national bank was established to administer a sinking-fund of which the indemnity was to form the nucleus; but its notes were refused, or were only taken by money-lenders at a heavy discount. It was at this juncture that the Rothschilds, the Barings, the Laboucheres, and other Viennese banking-houses began to make themselves felt, bringing order out of chaos and dictating terms, first to Austria and then to other European countries whose finances were equally deranged. Thus for a time Vienna became the headquarters of a financial oligarchy which controlled the public debt of Europe as though managing a private estate.
Recovering a portion of her possessions through the partition of territory determined at the congress of Vienna, Austria was for many years virtually under the control of Metternich, one of the most selfish of men, but with statesmanlike qualities that rapidly exalted him to power. His measures were entirely of absolute monarchy, suppressing free institutions and all other forms of liberty, including the liberty of the press.
Yet his devotion to his sovereign was by no means genuine. As steward of the national estate he managed its affairs without deigning to render an account; he accepted bribes in the form of gifts from foreign potentates, and in private life his luxury and sensualism gave cause for scandal in one of the most luxurious and dissolute communities in the world. The French revolution of 1848, which profoundly shook the entire fabric of European monarchy, was nowhere more strongly felt than in Austria and Hungary, championed as they were in the cause of liberty by such men as Louis Kossuth. At Vienna the people rose in a body, and proceeding to the imperial palace insisted on a new constitution and the dismissal of the existing ministry, especially of Metternich, whose house was burned, while the autocrat who for forty years had controlled the destinies of the empire was glad to make his escape in a washerwoman's cart. The emperor and empress fled to Innsbruck, and quiet was only restored by yielding to the demands of a committee which dictated terms to the government. Venice, Milan, and other Italian cities expelled their Austrian garrisons, and Bohemia was in open revolt. Hungary was the seat of a war which lasted almost until the congress of Dresden when it was, agreed to submit to the diet at Frankfort the affairs of the German confederacy.
An interval of peace was devoted to internal improvements and reforms. Agriculture and commerce were encouraged; new roads were built, railroads begun, and the last remnant of feudalism banished from the land. To the Austrian envoy Esterhazy was due the acceptance by the tsar of the terms of peace which ended the Crimean war. Presently came the war with France and Sardinia, the defeats of Magenta and Solferino, and the treaty of Zurich, whereby Francis Joseph ceded Lombardy to Victor Emmanuel, restoring to the princes of Tuscany and Modena all their former possessions, and becoming merely a member of an Italian confederation under the presidency of the pope. After the war with Denmark a dispute arose as to the division of the spoils, Austria finally ceding to Prussia her claim to the duchy of Lauenburg for the sum of 12,500,000 francs, while for Holstein she refused 300,000,000 francs. It was this refusal that chiefly led to the Austro-Prussian war, the result of which was the loss of Venetia, the exclusion of the empire from the German confederation, and the payment of 40,000,000 thalers, half this amount, however, being allowed for the surrender of all claims to Holstein and Schleswig.
Thus, after a struggle of more than half a century to maintain her supremacy in Germany and her dominion in Ital, Austria found herself with an empty treasury and with but the fragment of an army, left alone with her population of Slavs and Magyars whom all these years she had treated merely as the tools of her selfish ambition. Yet another misfortune was at hand in the Maximilian episode, the younger brother of the emperor setting forth for the conquest of the empire offered by Napoleon III and meeting his fate at Queretaro, while his widow, bereft of reason, lived for years a living death.
The dual constitution adopted in 1867 united the provinces of the empire under the Hapsburg dynasty, with certain interests in common but autonomous as to internal affairs. In the Hungarian kingdom are included, in addition to Hungaria proper, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slavonia. Under the terms of the constitution, Hungary agreed to assume one-third of the national debt accumulated up to 1868, paying on this account an annual contribution of more than 30,000,000 florins, the total of funded obligations in 1895 exceeding 6,000,000,000 florins, besides a large floating indebtedness. There are three separate budgets; first for the entire monarchy, second for Austria proper, and third for Hungary; the cost of general administration being borne in proportions determined by the representative bodies and approved by the emperor. For the common affairs of the monarchy the estimates for 1895 amounted to 152,000,000 florins, of which nearly all was appropriated to the military and naval departments; of Austria the total revenue was about 625,000,000, with a somewhat smaller expenditure, and for Hungary the figures were a little more than two-thirds of this amount. With a frontier exceeding 5,000 miles, for the most part in the very heart of Europe, Austria has an extensive system of fortifications, her arsenals at Pola, Trieste, and elsewhere containing an immense supply of the enginery and materials of war. On a peace footing the nominal strength of the army is 355,000, and on a war footing 1,830,000, with nearly 2,000 guns apart from fortress artillery,—an enormous armament, in truth; but Prussia has more, and Russia twice as many. The navy, chiefly for coast defense, consists of about 120 vessels, nearly half of which are cruisers or battleships. If as a military and naval power Austria ranks below other European nations, none have made greater sacrifices to improve the efficiency of all branches of an army and navy which were probably never so formidable as at the present day.
That the prestige of Austria had not been dimmed by misfortune was shown at the Vienna Exposition of 1873, the fifth, and so far the greatest of the series of international displays held in Europe since 1851. By nearly all the civilized countries of the world commissions were appointed for the occasion, and never before were assembled in the Austrian capital so many gifted and eminent men. Among the visitors and commissioners royalty was freely represented, the presence of the emperor and empress of Germany, the tzar of Russia, the king of Italy, and the prince of Wales, affording tokens of the good will of European nations.
The fair was held in the Prater, or park, on the eastern side of the city, formerly the hunting-ground of the imperial family, and in 1766 presented to the people by the emperor Joseph II. A wide expanse of lawn and woodland, more than 4,000 acres in extent, between the river Danube and the Danube canal, the Prater is the favorite resort of rich and poor alike; and there may be studied all phases of Viennese society, from the rich costumes and equipages of the Haupt-Allee, with its ample border of stately chestnut trees, to the boisterous gaiety of the people’s Prater, where all may find diversions suited to their tastes. Of the Exposition buildings several have been preserved, its art gallery and spacious rotunda being used for concerts and exhibitions. Elsewhere in the suburbs are many popular resorts, especially the gardens and grounds of the palaces of Schonbrunn and Laxenburg, with their marble statues, fountains, vases, and choice collections of exotic plants. The chateau of Schonbrunn, originally an imperial hunting lodge, was completed by Maria Theresa, and there Napoleon established his headquarters when after Austerlitz and Wagram the capital lay at his mercy.
In historic associations few cities are richer than Vienna, and none have attained to greater prosperity in the face of repeated disasters. Founded in the first decade of the Christian era as a Roman fortress under the name of Vindobona, on the site of a still more ancient Celtic settlement, it was long the northern bulwark of the vast empire of the Caesars, whose title was afterward assumed by the Kaisers of Germany. Here in 180 Marcus Aurelius ended his days, and a century later Vindobona ranked as a municipal town, the seat of government both civil and military until the decline of the empire left it a prey to successive hordes of barbarians. After being plundered and occupied by the Huns under Attila, it passed into the possession of the Avars, and thenceforth has no place in history until Charlemagne expelled the intruders and established there one of the boundaries of his empire. The traffic incidental to the crusades again brought Vienna into prominence, so that when it became the capital of the Hapsburgs it filled the entire area of what is now termed the inner city, with its encompassing fortifications, removed by decree of 1858, and now replaced in part by the Ringstrasse, one of the most spacious of Viennese boulevards. Thenceforth it shared the changing fortunes of Austria, gradually rising into power and splendor, though several times beleaguered by Turks and Frenchmen, whose depredations retarded its growth.
Unlike most European capitals, the inner town of Vienna is the aristocratic quarter; the palaces of the emperor and of the wealthy and noble are there, together with the government offices and the headquarters of embassies and legations. Yet most of the streets are narrow, their scant proportions emphasized by the lofty many-storied edifices built by speculators and rented in quartiers to families.
Almost in the center is the Stefanskirche, or cathedral church of St. Stephen, an imposing specimen of medieval architecture, belonging in its present form chiefly to the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries but, with remnants of the original edifice consecrated in 1147 and soon afterward destroyed by fire. It is built of limestone in the form of a Latin cross 335 feet in length and surmounted by a modern tower 450 feet in height, its richly groined ceiling supported by massive pillars adorned with statuettes. Among its altars is that which commemorates the escape of the present emperor from assassination in 1853, an altar-piece of black marble representing the martyrdom of St. Stephen. In the burial vaults were formerly interred the sovereigns of the house of Hapsburg, now buried beneath the church of the Capuchins. The sarcophagus of Frederick III is an elaborate structure in red and white marble encircled by coats-of-arms, and in the Liechtenstein chapel is the tomb of Prince Eugene of Savoy. Of the stained-glass windows several are from designs by Fuhric, and in the vestibule of the chapel of St. Catherine are portraits of Austrian dukes and monarchs. Among other ancient ecclesiastical buildings within the line of the old fortifications is the Gothic Augustine church founded in 1330, at the entrance of which is Canova’s beautiful monument of Maria Christina.
South of the cathedral is the Hofburg, or Burg as it is commonly termed, almost from time immemorial the abode of the Hapsburg sovereigns. It is a complex and irregular series of buildings in various styles of architecture, dating from various periods and with little regard to uniformity of plan, the oldest portions belonging to thirteenth and the latest to seventeenth century designs, though completed only within the present decade. In the several courts are bronze statues of the emperors, Francis I appearing in the robes of the order of the Golden Fleece surrounded by symbolical figures, and Joseph II on horseback, with reliefs representing the leading incidents in his career, while in an open space near by the archduke Charles on prancing steed is waving aloft a flag, the only one probably captured from the French at his much vaunted victory of Aspern.
First among the many collections of the Hofburg may be mentioned the Imperial library, containing nearly 500,000 volumes and many thousands of manuscripts, including the rarest of oriental documents. Out of 7,000 or more incunabula, a psalter of 1457 and a copy of the Biblia Pauperum of the edition of 1430 belong in truth to the cradle of the art of printing. There are fragments of the gospels and of the book of Genesis, bound in purple parchment and with gold and silver lettering of the sixth century; there is one of the earliest manuscript copies of Tristan, and beautifully executed with marginal illustrations, is a fourteenth century edition of the Divina Comedia of Dante. In connection with the library, and founded by Prince Eugene, is a collection of 350,000 engravings and wood-cuts, illustrating the progress of these arts from their inception until the present day.
In the treasury is one of the most interesting and valuable historic collections in the world, beginning in the entrance chamber with the standard of Austria, the shield of the grand marshal, and the rich embroidery of heraldic robes. Within are specimens of the goldsmith’s, silversmith's and lapidary’s arts from the fourteenth century downward, including a richly decorated crystal goblet, once the property of Charles the Bold, with jewelry and precious stones, ornaments in gold, silver, and gems, vases, goblets, dishes, tankards, drinking-cups, and articles of almost every shape and use into which the precious metals have been fashioned.
Of enormous value are the imperial gems and jewelry, the crowns and coronation robes of the emperor and empress, and the regalia pertaining to the royal family. Among the decorations of various orders is that of the Golden Fleece, in the center of which is a large diamond solitaire surrounded by 150 brilliants, the grand cross of the order of Maria Theresa containing 550 brilliants and a center stone of 26 carats. There are the insignia worn by Napoleon when assuming the crown of the Lombard kings, and the silver cradle of the king of Rome nearly 600 pounds in weight; there are the sword and scepter of Charlemagne, the saber of Haroun-al-Raschid, and historic curiosities gathered during the reign of a dynasty extending in unbroken succession from the close of the thirteenth to the closing years of the nineteenth century. But more precious than all the rest is the famous Florentine diamond, 130 carats in weight, and valued at $300,000. Originally belonging to Charles the Bold, it is said to have been picked up on the battlefield of Morat by a peasant, who sold it for a single florin, later passing into the possession of the grand duke of Tuscany.
In the cabinet of coins and antiquities are some 200,000 specimens of the former, the contributions of emperors and nobles, with collections of ancient Italian and other historic medals. Of the Greek and Etruscan vases, the finest are of fourth and fifth century workmanship; and in the gallery of bronzes are many classical subjects, together with a tablet on which is inscribed a decree of the Roman senate bearing date AUC 567; that is to say nearly two centuries before the Christian era. There is an entire chamber filled with works of art in gold, with cut stones, cameos, and intaglios, with ornaments, trinkets, and other objects. Among them are a head of Medusa in onyx and a cameo representing Augustus enthroned as Jupiter, with other figures of emperors, gods, and demigods. There are necklaces from Herculaneum, and golden vessels of Etruscan and Roman workmanship; there are ivory and marble tablets, busts and statuettes; there is the celebrated, Timoni collection of gems; and fashioned of shells on which are the portraits of Austrian sovereigns is a necklace of the order of the Golden Fleece.
From the Hofburg the Hofgarten and Volksgarten extend to the Ringstrasse, around which center many of the spacious and handsome buildings of modern Vienna. On either side of a stately monument of Maria Theresa are the imperial museums of art and natural history, two counterpart structures of the renaissance order, the dome of the latter covered with a mammoth pictorial canvas by Hans Makart. Surmounting them are colossal statues of Apollo and Athena, and on the cornices are figures of prominent artists and naturalists. The Austrian museum of art and industry was founded for the promotion of the industrial arts, and is well stocked with specimens of goldsmith’s work, of ceramics and glassware, of furniture, tapestries, and carvings belonging to many eras and nationalities.
Adjacent to the imperial museums is the palace of justice in the style of the German renaissance, and with a colossal marble statue in the center of its spacious hall. Near at hand are the houses of parliament, in which Grecian models have been skillfully adapted to modern architectural requirements. The porticos are formed of monolithic marble columns and on their friezes are represented some of the principal events in the annals of the empire. Both chambers are profusely adorned with statuary and at the corners of each are bronze, quadrigæ, other points of emphasis adding to the effect this graceful and imposing composition. A colossal and richly decorated structure of Gothic design is the neighboring rathhaus, with its seven interior courts, completed in 1883 at a cost of 15,000,000 florins. The central tower, 330 feet in height, is surmounted with a gracefully tapering spire capped with a colossal figure of a German knight.
Especially handsome are the main staircases with their marble pillars and gilded balustrades, the frescoed council chamber, and the lofty reception hall, in which are statues of the former burgomasters of Vienna. On the first floor is the municipal library, and in the municipal collection of arms and armor are entire suits of mail-clad warriors, many of them finely chased, with shields and escutcheons swords, and daggers, spears and pikes, muskets, arquebuses, and other weapons of the medieval ages. Of the wars of Austria there are also many things to remind us, including flags and other trophies captured from the Turks during their sieges of Vienna.
Opposite the rathhaus is the court theater, and not far away the Imperial opera house, both of them handsome renaissance edifices rich in columnar and other decorations. In interior embellishments the latter is second only to the grand opera house at Paris, and though less stately as to proportions has in its finely gilded and painted interior seating accommodation for 2,300 spectators. In front of the boxes are medallions of the leading members of the company for the last century or more; in the foyer are the busts of celebrated composers, and on the stairway marble statues representing the liberal arts. In the Schillerplatz, close at hand, is Schilling's bronze statue of the poet after whom the plaza is named, with figures typical of the four ages at the corners of the pedestal, and at the sides those of genius, poetry, science, and love. In this connection may be mentioned, among the many sculptural decorations of Viennese avenues and squares, the rostral marble column erected in memory of Wilhelm Tegetthoff, the equestrian statue of Prince Schwartzenburg, and the monument to Beethoven by Zumbusch, on one side of which is Prometheus vinctus and on the other Victory holding aloft a laurel wreath.
In art collections, whether public or private, Vienna does not suffer by comparison with any of the great European capitals. The Academy of Art, founded in 1692 by Leopold I and for which the present building on the Schillerplatz was completed in 1876, is still another of the richly decorated renaissance buildings characteristic of Viennese architecture, the outer facades of its upper stories decorated with imitations of ancient sculpture and with allegorical figures on a ground of gold. In the aula are more copies of statuary, ancient, mediaeval, and modern, nearly 2,000 in number, interspersed with original studies by modern sculptors. In the picture galleries all the principal schools of painting are freely represented, and especially that of the Netherlands, as Van der Meer, Ruysdael, and Rubens, whose 'Graces' here exhibit their voluptuous charms with all the sensuousness pertaining to Rubens' style. The largest and most valuable portion of the collection was contributed by Count Lamberg, in 1812, and to this a smaller one was added by the emperor Ferdinand. While there is the usual leaven of mediocrity, there are to be found in these galleries such works as Titian’s ‘Cupid,’ ‘The Annunciation’ by Paul Veronese, Rembrandt’s ‘Dutch Girl’, Van Dyck's 'Souls in Purgatory, and Teniers' 'Five Senses' and 'Witches Sabbath,' with landscape and other compositions by men of world-wide repute. In the remaining galleries are the art library, and more than 100,000 water-colors, drawings, and engravings.
Foremost among private collections is the Aibertina, in the palace of the archduke Albert, where the display of drawings and engravings is the largest and most valuable in the world. Of the former there are nearly 120,000, including several hundreds of sketches by Raphael, Rembrandt, Rubens, and Durer. In the engravings, which number twice as many, the old masters are freely represented, and in a library of 50,000 volumes, with 24,000 maps and plans, are many finely illustrated works.
The collections of the Belvedere palace, formerly the residence of Prince Eugene, surpass in value even those of the Academy, and are especially rich in the canvases of Rubens and Durer, though with Venetian, early Italian, and Spanish masterpieces. No less remarkable is its collection of antiquities and curiosities, including ancient armor, sacerdotal vestments, and works of art and art manufacture in ivory, bronze, and marble. In one of the chambers are jewelry, gems, and the most fanciful of bijouterie; goldsmiths’ work, ebony and other cabinets richly mounted in silver articles fashioned in agate and jasper, and weapons with beautifully chased and enameled hilts. The most extensive of many private galleries is contained in the former mansion of Prince Liechenstein, where are several hundred works of superior merit, and several thousand which cannot so be classed. Choicer and more compact assortments are those in the palaces of Czernin and Harrach, the latter a seventeenth century structure, not far from which is the Schonbrunn palace and gallery.
Of the Imperial and Austrian museums I have already spoken, and of others it need only here be said that they are fully in keeping with the purpose for which they were founded. One of the most interesting among them is the museum of weapons in connection with the arsenal, an extensive group of buildings in which are represented all the handicraft and enginery of war. In the vestibule of the museum are some fifty marble statues of Austrian heroes supported by massive compound pillars, and the stairway is decorated with allegorical frescos and with a marble group representing Austria guarding her children. In the hall of fame are represented in sculptural and pictorial art scenes in the military annals. Elsewhere is an extensive and of the empire, with captured standards, flags, and other trophies of conquest, most interesting collection of historic weapons and armor from the twelfth to the nineteenth century, including the sword and helmet of Charles V, the steel collar, riddled with bullet-holes, which Gustavus Adolphus wore at the battle of Lutzen the saber of the archduke Charles, and the armored suits of emperors and nobles such as were worn at tournaments and on the field of battle.
At the head of the educational system of Austria is the University of Vienna, founded in 1365, reorganized during the reign of Maria Theresa, and now with a European reputation, especially for its medical faculty. There are several hundred professors, and an average attendance of 5,000 or 6,000 students; in connection with it are an observatory and a library of 350,000 volumes, all of them housed, together with the pathological museum, the chemical laboratory, and other departments, in a quadrangular building of the Tuscan renaissance, almost as large as the rathhaus, but less imposing in effect. In the Maximilianplatz, not far from the university grounds, is the votive church which commemorates the present emperor s escape from assassination during the outbreak of 1853. It is a beautiful Gothic structure, its elaborate facade richly adorned with statuary and surmounted with slender, open towers 350 feet in height. The interior embellishments are in excellent taste, and especially the stained-glass windows, all of which are in the most finished style of decorative art.
Among other imposing structures on the Ringstrasse is the exchange, a rectangular group of buildings 300 feet in length and 325 in depth, erected at a cost of 5,000,000 florins. It is a solid, massive businesslike edifice of the renaissance order, but with lavish decoration of its stately facade in marble and terracotta, the portico containing five arches flanked with double rows of columns. The vestibule and main hall are spacious and handsome, and in one of the chambers is an extensive collection of oriental products.
In the heart of Vienna are several breathing-grounds, in addition to the Volksgarten and Hofgarten, the former containing a temple of Theseus with Canova's marble group, and the latter an equestrian statue of Francis I. From the center of the Hof, the largest public square of the inner city, where stood the ancient castle of Babenburg dukes and margraves, rises the stately column of St. Mary, erected by Leopold I in 1664. Fronting on the platz are the war office, the civic arsenal, and the handsome quarters of the Credit-Anstalt. The Freyung has a handsome fountain and a column encircled with oak-wreaths supporting a figure of Austria. The Stadtpark, with its shaded walks, its gardens, fountains, and playgrounds, is one of the many favorite resorts in the neighborhood of the spacious Ringstrasse, two miles in length and 160 feet in width, extending from the Aspern Bridge to the extremity of the Schottenring, and with the Franz-Josefs quai completely encircling the inner city. The Elisabethbrucke, across the Wien, is one of the finest of Viennese bridges, 90 feet wide and with parapets adorned with marble statuary. The Augartenbrucke, the Sofienbrucke, and others span the Danube canal, the latter leading toward the Prater.
In the outer districts of Vienna are many handsome buildings both public and private, first among which may be mentioned the Karlskirche, with its lofty dome, erected in the reign of Charles VI to commemorate the cessation of the plague which early in the eighteenth century carried death into thousands of households. On the tympanum above its chaste Corinthian portico are portrayed in relief the effects of the pestilence, and on either side is a tall pillar embellished with reliefs, the effect of which is somewhat marred by the surmounting campanile.
The Altlerchenfeld church is a fine edifice of medieval architecture, with towers and an octagonal dome. The church of St. John is handsomely decorated with frescos, and in the atrium of the Jewish synagogue, in Moorish style, are fine specimens of mosaic work. Among the various hospitals the largest is the Rudolf, with accommodation for nearly 1,000 patients, and there is a hospital for pensioners in which, as at the English Greenwich hospital, are paintings of historic battlefields.
In addition to those already mentioned there are many imposing mansions and palaces, where dwell the noble and wealthy, both in the inner city and the districts beyond. On the Schwarzenbergplatz is the palace of Ludwig Victor, with stately facade in the style of the Italian renaissance, the summer palace of the Schwarzenberg princes lying beyond the bridge which crosses the Wien toward Landstrasse. Archduke William’s palace is a modern building with an Ionic portico, above which are trophies and statuary. In the palace of the duke of Coburg, with its spacious balcony, are also columns of the Ionic and Corinthian orders. The Metternich palace and the palaces of the duke of Nassau and the German and British embassies are in the old Metternich Park, now covered with handsome streets and structures. The quarter southeast of the Karlskirche has also been recently covered with costly edifices, among which are the palaces of the Rothschilds and of the grand-duke of Tuscany. In the Josefstadt is the magnificent chateau of Prince Auersperg, and near the Schottenring are those of Prince Dietrichstein and Count Chotek. Among other historic mansions are those of Prince Lobkowitz, now occupied by the French embassy, of Montenuovo where is the Anglo-Austrian bank, and of Sina, near which stood, as is said, the Roman praetorium, for though restored and decorated, this is a portion of the oldest house in Vienna.
Thus it will be seen that like Rome, in the days of Augustus, Vienna is a city of palaces, though around some of them are thickly clustered the squalid habitations of the poor, while in close proximity to others, or forming part of them, are factories, shops, and marketplaces. If as a commercial and industrial metropolis it ranks below other European centers, there is nevertheless a considerable volume of trade and manufactures, both steadily if slowly increasing. But this cosmopolitan and heterogeneous community of Germans and Hungarians Slavs and Czechs, with endless race intermixture, is rather a pleasure than a business loving people, gay, genial, lighthearted, and in striking contrast with the inhabitants of the northern capital. Yet they are a frugal, sober, and fairly industrious folk, excelling in many of the useful arts, while in the fine arts they can point to such masters as Hans Makart, and to such musicians as Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn, and Schubert.
Prague ranks second in population among the cities of the empire, though its 200,000 inhabitants are little more than one-eighth of the number contained in the Austrian metropolis. Founded probably in the opening years of the eighth century, it had become in the thirteenth century the one of the principal cities of Germany, seat of a brilliant court, as appears at the coronation of Vasclav II on which occasion, if we may believe a German chronicler, "such a festival was held as had never been celebrated, neither by a king of Assyna nor by Solomon himself.”
There were present 30 princes and 7,000 knights, while the town was not large enough to accommodate the crowds of visitors; so that an immense pavilion richly decorated with tapestry was erected on the plain adjacent, where guests of high degree were entertained with lavish hospitality. The crown used at the coronation, the sword and buckler, the mantle and other appurtenances of royalty were worth many thousands of marks, and never before had such splendor been witnessed in the capital of Bohemia. Except during the Hussite wars it continued to prosper in the main, though several times besieged, and especially during the Thirty Years' war suffering its full share of tribulation; for it was there that the great contest originated through the hurling of the imperial councilors from the windows of the castle of Hradschin.
From the castle hill rises the imperial palace, an enormous cluster of buildings containing 450 rooms; but of historic rather than architectural interest, founded probably by the princess Libussa, and enlarged by Charles IV and his successors. In the palace court is the cathedral of St. Vitus, a fourteenth century structure, with modern additions originally in the form of a spacious Gothic choir surmounted with a tower 520 feet in height, since partially destroyed by fire. In the nave is a marble and alabaster "monument of the kings," beneath which are the tombs of former Bohemian monarchs and members of the royal family. The Wenzel chapel is decorated with ancient frescos and precious stones, the former partially obliterated; the walls of the St. Wenceslaus chapel are overlaid with jasper amethyst and chalcedony; there are several altars adorned with marble statuary; and there is a shrine of solid silver containing more than 40,000 ounces of metal. On the highest point of the hill is the imposing and richly endowed abbey of Strahow, containing an excellent library and picture gallery. Among other palaces in the neighborhood is that of the archbishop, and in the imperial gardens toward the north is the Belvedere villa, erected by Ferdinand I in the style of the Italian renaissance, its spacious hall adorned with frescos descriptive of Bohemian annals.
In the Neustadt, or new town, the site of the fortifications which formerly divided it from the old quarter is now surrounded with handsome streets and squares containing many of the public buildings, and especially the numerous hospitals and other benevolent institutions that betoken the charity of the citizens.
Here is the rathhaus, erected on the site of a fourteenth century building, of which only the tower and council-chamber now remain. Near it is an extensive block of buildings known as the Collegium Clementinum, including churches, chapels, educational institutions, an observatory, and an art-gallery. The Bohemian museum has a valuable library containing Hussite and other manuscripts, with ethnographic, numismatic, and botanical collections contributed chiefly by Count Sternberg. There are also carvings in ivory and wood, bronzes, goblets, and historic weapons, among them the sword of Gustavus Adolphus and that with which the protestant leaders were beheaded after the battle of White Hill. The Bohemian theater, partially destroyed by fire in 1881, was restored and enlarged at a total cost of nearly $1,000,000. Of churches the most imposing are the Carlshof, a masterpiece of fourteenth century Gothic architecture, and the Emaus, also a Gothic structure, recently restored and with frescoed transept representing subjects from the Biblia Pauperum.
The Altstad, or old town, is the principal trading quarter, thickly peopled and with narrow, tortuous streets, though lining the river Moldau are spacious quays adorned with the bronze statues of Charles IV and Francis I. Here also is a Jewish settlement, probably the most ancient in Europe, thickly clustered amid a labyrinth of dingy and crowded alleys, almost in the center of which is the still more crowded cemetery. Around the platz known as the Grosser Ring are several historic buildings, and near it is the University of Prague, the oldest in the empire, founded by Charles IV in 1348, and attended by many thousands of students from every part of Europe, until distinctions made against foreigners drove them to other seats of learning. It has still a wide reputation and a large attendance lectures, being delivered and degrees conferred both in German and Bohemian. Its schools where of philosophy and theology are conducted in the Collegium Clementinum, also is housed its library of 200,000 volumes, rich in Bohemian literature. On the quay adjacent is the Rudolfinum, a handsome renaissance edifice in which are picture galleries, a conservatory of music, and an industrial museum. The Teynkirche, formerly the church of the Hussites, with its high-pitched roof and pointed towers, is one of the many buildings of historic interest, as also is the palace of Count Clam-Gallas, completed in 1712, and one of the most finished specimens of the architectural era to which it belongs.
Many bridges lead to the aristocratic and official quarter of the Kleinseite, beyond the broad stream of the Moldau, here from 1,200 to 1,500 feet in width. Among them are Kaiser-Franzbrucke, a suspension bridge spanning the Schutzen Island and the Karlsbrucke with its 16 arches and its ancient towers of defense, begun in 1357 and a century and a half in the building.
On the buttresses of the bridge are many statues of saints, and a slab of marble near the statue of St. John Nepomuc marks the spot where, as tradition relates, the patron saint of Bohemia was hurled from the bridge for refusing to betray to the emperor Wenzel what his wife had revealed in the confessional. The Karlsbrucke leads to the ring around which cluster the principal buildings of the Kleinseite, or little Prague. In the center of the ring is the Radetzky monument reared by the Bohemian art union, the marshal with baton and flag standing on a shield upheld by soldiers, the figures being composed of the gun-metal of Piedmontese cannon. Fronting on the ring is the Jesuit church of St. Nicholas with its handsome decorations in marble and gilding. In the Waldsteinplatz nearby is the Wallenstein palace, the most interesting of the many mansions of the Bohemian noblesse; for Wallenstein was the central figure of the Thirty Years' war. Still in the possession of the family, it is a spacious edifice its ancient hall, since, restored, containing the grotesque caryatides with which it was embellished when first constructed in 1623, while in the chapel adjoining are paintings by Durer, Guido, and other artists of renown, and in an open gallery facing the garden a mounted figure of the horse which Wallenstein rode at the battle of Lutzen. Beyond is the Hradschin, the Capitoline hill of Prague, the principal features of which have already been described.
Trieste, the only important seaport of the Austro- Hungarian Empire, was originally a Roman colony founded under the name of Tergeste during the reign of Vespasian. After acknowledging a succession of rulers it was captured by the Venetians early in the thirteenth century, and near the close of the following century placed itself under the protection of Austria, later becoming and remaining an integral portion of its dominions, except for brief periods during the Napoleonic wars. It is beautifully situated on the crescent-shaped bay opening into the gulf which bears its name, the old town with its steep and narrow streets clustering around the base and slopes of a hill crowned with a seventeenth century castle erected on the site of an ancient Roman capitol. Near it, amid the ruins of a Roman temple, is the cathedral of St. Giusto, a plain, medieval structure formed by the combination of several contiguous edifices, among which were a Byzantine church and an early Christian basilica. Here is the burial place of Winckelmann the archaeologist, of Don Carlos of Spain, and of Fouche, Napoleon's minister of police.
The Corso, a handsome and spacious thoroughfare, leads to the new town skirting the bay and built partly on ground reclaimed from its waters. The Jesuit and Greek churches are among its finest buildings, the latter an elegant specimen of Byzantine architecture, and with rich interior decorations. The Palazzo Revoltella, in front of which is a monument to the emperor Maximilian of Mexico, was erected and adorned with paintings and statuary by a baron of that name, who also bequeathed a large sum for its maintenance and preservation. Almost in the suburbs of the city is the chateau of Miramar, the former residence of Maximilian, richly furnished and surrounded with a beautiful park.
As a seaport Trieste has long outstripped its ancient rival Venice, with exports and imports amounting probably to $200,000,000 a year and as the, headquarters of the Austrian Lloyd s company, having steam communication with all the principal Mediterranean and Black Sea ports.
Lemberg, the capital of Galicia, is a city of churches and colleges, apart from which it contains little of interest. There are several cathedrals and several score of churches, chapels and convents of all denominations, most of them belonging to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when Lemberg was the ecclesiastical center of Germany. Its university, founded by Joseph II in 1784, has a library of 75,000 volumes, with an extensive collection of specimens in natural history; and in the National institute, established by Ossolinski, is a larger and more valuable library, with manuscripts, portraits, coins, and antiquities, relating chiefly to Polish history and literature. The town ranks third in population among Austrian cities, and has a moderate volume of commerce and manufactures.
Gratz, the capital of Styria, on the river Mur, or L'Amour as the French call it, alluding in jest to the beauty of its site, is a favorite resort for retired officers and others of limited means; for this is one of the least expensive as well as one of the most delightful of Austrian towns. Almost in the center and surrounded, with modern and spacious thoroughfares lined with handsome residences, is the Stadtpark, neatly laid out and adorned with fountains and statuary. Towering above the city is the Schlossberg, whose fifteenth century fortifications, built for protection against the Turks, were destroyed by one of Napoleon's marshals. There are many churches, chief among which is the Gothic cathedral founded by Frederick III in 1450, and with numerous alterations and additions, especially its tall copper spire and its tasteful interior decorations, including costly shrines and stained-glass windows, for the most part of modern date. In the Landhaus, where the estates hold session, is the huge silver goblet known as the Landschadenbund, a masterpiece of the goldsmith's art. Among the several palaces are those of Count Attem, with a fine art collection, and of the archduke John, whose dilatory movements lost to the Austrians the battle of Wagram. By the latter was founded the Joanneum, for the promotion of scientific education, and now the property of the state.
The ancient town of Brunn, not far from which is the battlefield of Austerlitz, is indebted to Joseph II for its spacious public gardens and park of the Augarten. Its rathhaus is famous for its Gothic portal and its valuable antiquities. Of ecclesiastical structures the most remarkable is the Gothic cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul, with its lofty vaulted ceiling, built in the fifteenth century, destroyed by the Swiss in the seventeenth, and later restored in somewhat doubtful taste. The church of St. James is a massive and well-proportioned structure, with stained-glass windows of artistic design, and a unique collection of early typography. Worthy of note also are the stately Jewish synagogue and the medieval convent of the Augustine friars. In the Spielberg citadel, near the hill of that name, was the prison in which Baron Trenck ended his days, and where Silvio Pellico passed the long years of his captivity in writing the Prigioni. As the capital of the Austrian margravate of Moravia, Brunn is a place of some importance, containing also a large number of educational and charitable institutions, and factories for the production of woolen silk cotton and other fabrics.
Of all European capitals perhaps none have suffered more vicissitudes than the city of Cracow, where until 1764 were crowned the kings of Poland. Capture first by the Bohemians near the middle of the eleventh century, and then in turn by the Mongols, the Swedes, the Russians, Austrians, and French, it was declared in the treaty of Vienna which settled the affairs of Europe in 1815 that Cracow, with its adjacent territory, should be forever "a free, independent, and strictly neutral city" under the protection of Russia, Austria, and Prussia. Thus it continued until the insurrection of 1846, the result as it seemed of a widely spread conspiracy, when at the request of the authorities the town was occupied by Austrian troops, and a few months later this miniature republic disappeared from the map of Europe.
Still in the old town stands on the rock of Wawel, the ancient castle of the Polish kings, founded in the fourteenth century by Casimir the Great, and now serving for barrack and hospital purposes, it is a huge and irregular pile, erected by various monarchs in different orders and no orders of architecture, though most of the buildings now in use are of modern date.
For a population of less than 80,000 there are in Cracow more than threescore churches and convents, first among which is the Schlosskirche, or as it is usually named the Stanislaus cathedral. This also was built during the reign of Casimir, on ground adjacent to his castle, and there for many cycles took place the ceremony ofcCrowning the sovereigns of Poland. Here also are the mausolea of the Sigismunds, of Sobieski, Poniatowski, Kosciusko and other Polish patriots, warriors, and kings, while in a silver sarcophagus upheld by silver cherubim are preserved the remains of St. Stanislaus, the patron saint of the Poles. In several of the chapels are the finest of Thorwaldsen’s statues and in the treasury are the jewelry and gems of former monarchs, gold and silver vessels of the church and the richest of sacerdotal vestments. The university of Cracow is still another of Casimir's creations, though not completed until many years after his death. In its several departments are about 130 professors and 1,200 students, its library of 170,000 volumes containing a large number of manuscripts. In connection with it are botanic gardens, an observatory, and archaeological and medical museums. In the Czartoryski museum is a large collection of antique bronzes, gold and silver ornaments, carvings in ivory, porcelains and faience, the picture gallery containing works by such artists as Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, Rembrandt, and Van Dyck. In the Tuchhaus, or cloth-hall, is another picture-gallery, somewhat out of place amid the Gothic booths of the Ringplatz, where also are the remains of the ancient rathhaus with its medieval tower.
In 1873 the Hungarian city of Pesth was incorporated with the town of Ofen, or as in the Hungarian. Buda, on the opposite side of the Danube under the name of Buda-Pesth, forming together the present capital of Hungary and the seat of the imperial diet. Pesth was an ancient Roman settlement, in the middle ages a place of importance, and though later falling into decay, now ranking next to Vienna as a commercial center. Within recent years Pesth, like Paris, has been almost reconstructed, a number of spacious ringstrassen encircling the metropolis, where are now many handsome structures, especially those which extend in almost unbroken array along the left bank of the river.
First may be mentioned the academy, a modern structure in the style of the renaissance, its vestibule adorned with a handsome marble colonnade, and with the portraits of distinguished members. The reception room is the finest of its many apartments, with a gallery supported by pillars of red marble, and a vaulted ceiling beneath which are rows of Caryatides. Founded for the promotion of literature science and art it has, a library of 120,000 volumes and contains on two of its floors the national picture galleries, in which is the famous collection of Prince Eszterhazy, purchased by the state for 1,300,000 florins. There are also 2,000 or 3,000 drawings, and at least 60,000 engravings. The National museum has a mediocre collection of works of art and a choice collection of antiquities, including coins and historic weapons, among them the saber of Peter the Great, with medieval goblets, dishes, and trinkets of gold and silver and among other curiosities the table-service of Frederick the Great captured on the field of Kolin. There are also collections in ethnology and natural history, gathered chiefly in eastern Asia for the Hungarian government, and a library of nearly 200,000 volumes and 15,000 manuscripts. Still another large library is that of the university, in which are the usual departments, with a liberal attendance of students and staff of professors.
A suspension bridge, 1,260 feet long, 40 in width, and supported by pillars 150 feet in height, connects Pesth with its sister town of Buda, a tunnel extending thence through the castle hill, where have stood in succession Roman medieval and modern fortresses, and around which still clusters the ancient quarter of the city. Yet standing on this oblong rock of porphyry, resembling the Acropolis of Athens, is the massive chateau of King Bela IV, founded in 1247 and the residence of Hungarian monarchs until in 1541 it was captured by Sultan Soliman, who found here accommodation sufficient for a garrison of 12,000 janizaries. Above the figure of an angel in the act of bestowing the wreath of victory on a dying hero rises the monument erected to General Hentzi, who in 1849 laid down his life in defense of the citadel. Nearby are the arsenal, the residence of the governor, the quarters of officials, and the mansions of several Hungarian nobles. Here also is the abode of royalty, in the palace erected by Maria Theresa, partially destroyed during the tumults of 1849 and now restored on a larger and more magnificent scale, with 203 apartments.
In the throne-room is opened the Hungarian diet, and in one of the chambers are the crown of St. Stephen and the scepter sword and coronation robes of the kings, with the rich and costly regalia of the court.
Around the central portion of the city have arisen various suburbs, in one of which is the Matthiaskirche, also attributed to Bela IV and of Romanesque architecture, but now almost a modern structure in which the original features have been mainly preserved. Here were crowned in 1867 the reigning sovereigns of the house of Hapsburg. Francis Joseph and his consort Elizabeth. In the Wasserstadt suburb is the handsome church of St. Anne, and elsewhere are many others; in the Christinenstadt are the palace of Count Caracsonyi, the summer theater, and the Horvath gardens. Educational and charitable institutions are plentiful in Buda, which is also famous for its mineral baths, supplied from chalybeate and sulfur springs. There are several prosperous branches of manufacture, and trade is active, especially the river traffic, for the Danube Steam Navigation company has here a large establishment.
Miscellany—In addition to Viennese buildings described in the text, the following may briefly be mentioned. In the Michaelerplatz is the church of St. Michael, founded in 1221, with rich fourteenth century Gothic choir, and adorned with ancient monuments and modern paintings. Restored and altered late in the seventeenth century St. Michael's has become one of the most fashionable churches in Vienna. The Capuchin church contains the imperial vault, where are the richly decorated sarcophagi of Austrian monarchs from Maria Theresa to Ferdinand I. The Maltese church is attended chiefly by Hungarians; the church of St. Anna by the French, and there is a Greek church with Byzantine facade frescoed by Raid on a ground of gold and with costly interior decorations. For Bohemians the ancient Gothic church of Maria-Stiegen is a favorite place of worship. It is in the finest style of Gothic art, with handsome altars and stained-glass windows, its heptagonal tower, nearly 200 feet in height, terminating in an open dome of beautiful workmanship. In the Minorite church, frequented by Italians, is Raffaelle's splendid mosaic copy of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Last Supper.' It was nine years in execution, and was purchased by Napoleon for 400,000 florins.
Prince Nicholas Esterhazy, Vienna, had 21 castles and 500 villages; he died January 28, 1894, aged 77.
The emperor of Austria has an opal weighing 17 oz. and valued at §250,000.
Austria produces 110,000 tons of hemp annually.
Among secular buildings one of the most tasteful is the chamber of the minister of finance, erected in 1703, and originally occupied as the palace of Prince Eugene. Near it are the quarters of the Teutonic order in a chapel profusely decorated with banners, monuments and coats-of-arms. The , old rathhaus most of it built about the middle of the fifteenth century, when it was one of the finest buildings in the city, is rented out in apartments, its court containing a fountain with Donner's group of 'Perseus and Andromeda.' Adjoining the Harrach palace is that of Prince Kinsky with its elaborately decorated facade of early eighteenth century architecture. The Musikvereinsgebaude is a modern building with a valuable collection of medals, busts, portraits, and instruments, its principal concert chamber embellished with Eisenmenger’s ceiling-paintings of Apollo and the muses.
The crown of jewels of Austria are excelled by none. In the hilt of the sword of the first emperor of Germany are enormous sapphires; among the emeralds of the empress is one as large as an orange; her watch case consists of a single emerald, and it hangs from a chatelaine of emeralds and diamonds. Her toilet chamber is ablaze with jewels. In the treasure chamber is the regalia, brought from Aix-la-Chapelle, of Charlemagne, formerly used at the coronation of German emperors; also a diamond of over 135 carats, which belonged to Charles the Bold. Also the largest uncut emerald in the world, weighing 2,981 carats; and so on.
Vienna is well supplied with public baths, including among others the Kaiserbad and the Dianabad, in both of which are large swimming-baths converted into ballrooms in winter. But the principal swimming-baths are in connection with the Stadtische Badeanstalt in the suburbs. The largest of several basins is 250 feet long and 150 in width, and with private compartments affords accommodation for 1,200 persons. They are situated on the new channel of the Danube cut by the Danube improvement works and now lined with spacious quays.
As an agricultural country Austria-Hungary is more than self-sustaining, exporting cereals to the value of 80,000,000 or 90,000,000 florins a year, with other food products of much greater amount. While the yield per acre is not large, averaging for wheat about 13 and for barley and oats 20 bushels an acre, there is an immense area under cultivation, Hungary alone having 2,500,000 farms and Austria almost as many. Flax and hemp are produced in several provinces; hops chiefly in Bohemia, and wine in Hungary, whence comes 70 per cent of the total annual yield of 400,000,000 gallons, Hungarian wines being in considerable demand for export. Beets are largely raised, and the sugar extracted therefrom is shipped to the extent of 100,000,000 florins a year. Sericulture is a government monopoly, the yield of silk for 1894 exceeding 5,000,000 pounds. Fruits and vegetables thrive well, and forests of oak pine and ash cover more than 60,000,000 square miles, for the most part on the slopes of the Alps and Carpathian mountains, though the central ranges are also well wooded . Though Austria does not rank high as a cattle-raising country, there is a considerable surplus for export, Hungary taking the lead in the smaller live-stock. The total value of all agricultural, animal, and forest products is probably not short of 2,500,000,000 florins a year.
About 1,500,000 ounces of silver and 60,000 of gold are the annual output of Transylvanian, Hungarian, and Bohemian mines, while, as I have said, nearly all the useful metals are widely distributed and in abundant supply. The total value of all mining and furnace products shows a steady gain from year to year, increasing from 92,000,000 florins in 1889 to 112,000,000 in 1894, a gain of 22 percent within half a decade, notwithstanding a heavy decline in market prices. Coal ranks first, with a yield worth 68,000,000 florins, and next is iron to the amount of 25,000,000 florins.