Chapter the Seventeenth: Africa

To be thought rich is as good as to be rich.—Thackeray

The shortest way to riches is by contempt of riches.—Seneca

If we are rich with the riches which we neither give nor enjoy, we are rich with the riches which are buried in the caverns of the earth.—Vishnu Sama
Riches, perhaps, do not so often produce crimes as incite accusers. Want keeps pace with wealth. Wealth may be an excellent thing, for it means power, leisure, liberty.—Johnson

Wealth is an imperious mistress; she requires the whole heart and life of man. Life is short; the sooner a man begins to enjoy his wealth the better. Wealth is not his that has it, but his that enjoys it. If you would be wealthy, think of saving as well as of getting.—Laboulage

Wealth created without spot or blemish is an honest man's peerage, and to be proud of it is his right.—Beecher

Covetousness is ever attended with solicitude and anxiety.—Franklin

We never desire earnestly what we desire in reason. Avarice, which too often attends wealth, is a greater evil than any that is found in poverty. It is more opposed to economy than to liberality.—La Rochefoucauld

It is not a social passion.—Hazlitt

It is a passion full of paradox.—Colton

It grinds like an emery; it seldom flourishes save in the poorest soil; it is generally the last passion of those lives of which the first part has been squandered in pleasure, and the second devoted to ambition: he that sinks under the fatigue of getting wealth lulls his age with the milder business of saving it.—Fielding.

The desire of riches does not proceed from a natural passion within us, but arises rather from vulgar, out-of-doors opinion of other people.—Plutarch.

If you would abolish avarice, you must abolish the parent of it, luxury.—Cicero.

The eye of an avaricious man cannot be satisfied with wealth, any more than a well can be filled with dew.—Saadi.

Midway in our survey of the world's wealth, we come to the Dark Continent, early known but late to be penetrated by Caucasians. Here we are met by the still unanswered questions. Whence the inhabitant, with his black skin and woolly hair? Is he a son of Noah, or an autochthon? And what makes his skin black and his hair woolly, a father's curse or a southern sun? We will not question the possession of a soul, gravely discussed within the century, but grant him one, with all the rights and privileges inherent in all of God’s creatures, whether possessed of souls or not.

The history of the Africans is not without its lessons; but we are not always ready to accept, still less to apply the lessons of history. Our ethics are only partially sound, made up as they are of truth and falsity, reason and unreason, common sense and uncommon foolishness. Intellectual vision, never of the clearest, is rendered yet more obscure by opaque clouds of tradition and prejudice, and if unpalatable truths are made too plain, we close our eyes and wrap self-love in previous opinions. We do not like to admit how little we know of ourselves, or can ever know of others, or whence or what the agencies which have come into man’s being to make him what he is.

We are loath to accept the principle forced upon us that the ultimate right is might, that whatever is, omnipotent and inexorable power has so willed it, and therefore it must be, even though the weak unjustly go to the wall. What is right? we then ask, and straightway institute search for the difference between ancient infamies and our own, those to which we have tuned our tongue to give the proper name, and those which self-interest and superstition constrain us to call progress, improvement, the greatest good to the greatest number. Time, the illuminator, the conscience-tamer, and healer, permits us now on occasions to tell the truth. Time was when he would be scorned or persecuted who should say that every foot of land civilization rests upon is stolen property, even that whereon are reared our churches and hospitals and institutions of learning; yet we are just as ready as ever, while denouncing theft in the abstract or when practiced on ourselves, to steal all the land in the possession of weak and defenseless peoples which is worth the stealing.

But this is not all, nor by any means the worst of it. We used to steal men, but that form of theft we have abandoned. Why? Optimists and philanthropists say because the world is growing better and men more humane. Perhaps so. But why then do not men cease from stealing lands and killing those who attempt to defend them? It is difficult to establish the theory that human nature has changed, however manners may in some respects have become refined. A century or two ago men were wanted more than land; now land is more coveted than the enforced labor of men.

Property primeval consisted not only in air and sunshine, but in lands and streams and vegetation, while gold was of no special value, and so-called precious stones were worth no more than other stones. But at a very early date it was ascertained that human beings could, if caught, be utilized by the catcher as bondsmen, and thus the infamous practice grew, and developed into such vast proportions as to make it appear that on the whole, while many had grown rich thereby, slavery did not pay. Then Christendom pronounced it immoral. But it has not yet become immoral for European nations to enter the lands of defenseless peoples, take forcible possession, and proclaim laws; and should any rise and do battle for home and country they are called rebels and, butchered, with heralded glory to the butchers, all in the name of progress and civilization.

For the first score or two of centuries of our history, men spoke plainly and acted openly, claiming the right to rob, kill, and enslave; but since the gods have all left Olympus we must needs serve the devil under the guise of Christian charity. After all, if it tends to lessen cruelty or iniquity in any form, it may be as well to foster those schools of moralists whose leaders are able so clearly to show the difference between the old African slave trade and the trade which today permits men to enter Africa with book in one hand and sword in the other, to seize the country, and upon the first plausible excuse which offers to kill off the inhabitants.

The continent of Africa is teeming with wealth, and the great powers of Europe are quarreling over its seizure and partition. That this inevitable accompaniment of our nineteenth century civilization, which sooner or later is visited upon all savage countries, has been here so long delayed, was due to wars at home and the still incomplete extermination of native races in India and America. Slaves and ivory and gold and diamonds were, however, too glittering prizes for the cupidity of dominant races forever to resist, and soon the black man, like the red man, will have to surrender his home, and then the yellow man's turn will come, when the souls of Chinas millions will be converted to Christianity and their property transferred to our pockets.

The seizure of Africa by European powers was somewhat similar to the seizure of America 400 years ago. The possessions of the weaker races are taken by the stronger as a matter of course, and as by divine right. The entire continent of Africa, except the Sahara and the interior of Sudan, has been appropriated European nations in tracts of millions of square miles.—Great Britain 2,500,000, France 3,000,000, Germany 82,000, Belgium 850,000, Portugal 900,000, Italy 600,000, Spain 250,000. Turkey, 840,000—leaving unappropriated—besides Sahara and the Sudan.

Morocco, Liberia, and the Boer republics—only about 1,600,000 square miles. It appears to be the will of God that Europe should possess the world, and that the Hittites and Amorites, the Hivites and Jebusites of America and Africa, of India and peradventure of China should be smitten and utterly destroyed.

One reason why the interior of Africa has remained so long undisturbed by the march of civilization is the malarious nature of a large part of its border,—reputed at least to have a climate deadly to Europeans—this, and the jealousy manifested by the various nations holding possession of different parts of the coast uniting to protect other portions from the inroads of foreigners.

Speaking generally, as far as general remarks can apply to a continent so large and diversified as Africa, from the low coast belts of either ocean, covered with yellow grass and scattering palms interspersed with swamps and inhabited between the widely separated native villages by the leopard and hyena, the crocodile and hippopotamus, the country rises first into a low and then to a higher mountainous plateau covered with forests of thin stunted trees. In the northern interior, back of the Atlas mountains is the Great Sahara desert, and in the southern interior are lakes and rivers, mountains and plains filled with vegetable and mineral wealth, the riches of royalty and nobility being largely in wives and slaves.

Early in the movements of the human race, intimations of which come to us from the twilight of mythology, the most ancient nations of the east, and later the Phoenicians and others, planted colonies along the Mediterranean shore of Africa, and even on the Atlantic seaboard. Libya, the continent was called, which Herodotus says was circumnavigated by Phoenician ships furnished by Pharaoh Neko, king of Egypt. But the Asiatics who cruised around the Mediterranean coast of Africa 3,000 or 4,000 years ago were not disposed to penetrate far into the interior, even had they been able to do so, in the absence of any large river west of Egypt. Nor were there great and wealthy nations to conquer and despoil, while stretching almost across the continent was the broad expanse of the Sahara, where according to tradition were quickly burned to ashes those who dared venture therein.

Of the settlements made upon the northern seaboard, those of the Phoenicians are of the earliest authentic record, though how far they explored inland has not even yet been determined, some saying that their traders were on the Niger, others only on a branch of the Nile. With their camels the Arabs could cross the desert with some degree of safety, penetrating as far as the Senegal and Gambia, and planting colonies at Sofala, Mombas, Melinda, and other points.

Voyages were made along the western coast, if indeed the continent was not then circumnavigated by the Egyptians and Phoenicians notwithstanding their fear of the sea of Darkness beyond the Pillars of Hercules. It was of the people of this coast that the story is told by Herodotus, so often repeated and applied to other nations as to the method of traffic, strangers landing and quickly retiring after leaving articles on shore, whereupon the natives would appear and place beside them other articles that they were willing to give in exchange. It is certain that long before modern Europe had any other than the vaguest knowledge of the country, Mohammedans had made their way inland and formed settlements on the banks of the Niger, among which were Ghana, later known as Wangara, and Tokrur, somewhat to the eastward. In the Niam forests to the south the followers of the prophet kidnapped the natives and sold them to the slave merchants of Barbary and Egypt.

Upon the general awakening from the relapse into barbarism which followed the dissolution of the Roman empire, the African coast attracted the attention, first of Spain and then of Portugal. In 1393 one Almonaster visited the Canaries, and in 1405 the dominion of these islands was granted by the king of Castile to the Norman baron, Jehan de Betancourt, who explored the coast beyond Cape Bojador to the Rio d’Oro, where he gathered much gold and many captives. Portugal then came to the front, and while the armament assembled at Lisbon awaited its orders for the attack on Morocco, certain adventurous captains sailed along the coast to a point whence manners had hitherto believed it impossible to return.

When in 1415 the Portuguese took Ceuta, a town on the African coast opposite Gibraltar, Prince Henry was told by Moorish prisoners that beyond the Sahara, beyond the fiery zone which the ancients had deemed it impossible to cross, was a populous country, rich in ivory and gold. The people there were very black of skin, with short hair crisped to the head, probably by reason of the heat, which was so intense that it boiled the surf on their shore. This Henry of Portugal, who was one of the world’s great men, with intelligence far in advance of his time, and with no taste for the frivolities of his father's court, resolved to gather in some of these black men with their gold and ivory and woolly hair. He was not afraid of the traditional heat,—that is to say he did not fear it for his captains,—and he had seen the surf boil when it was cold. So he drew around him the braver and more intelligent men of the nation, and opening a school of navigation and discovery at Sagres, near Cape St. Vincent, sent forth expeditions which resulted in the occupation of the Gold coast by the Portuguese, and the opening up by sea of the Negro slave trade. A gold mine was profitably worked at Approbi, and so great was the yield at another point, that the place took the name of Elmina, and a settlement was formed there, with fort soldiers and church, and all the appliances needed for entrapping and converting the natives. Thus while the illustrious Genoese was preparing to open a pathway for Europeans to the land of the naked red man in America, John II of Portugal was deriving his revenues largely from the robbery of the naked black man in Africa. Claims were subsequently preferred by the French to the ownership of the Gold coast, on the ground of discovery prior to that of the Portuguese. Villault was there in 1666, and found French names on the Grain Coast, where settlements had been made by the Rouen Company about 1616, on the strength of which he claimed priority of possession for the French of the Gold and ivory coasts as well, but without success. Further than this, Prince Henry, in 1433, had obtained from Pope Eugene IV a bull granting to Portugal all lands which had been or might be discovered beyond Cape Bojador.

In 1486 was organized under the auspices of King John the Guinea company, two fleets thereafter making annual voyages between Lisbon and the Gold coast. Whenever the Africans attempted to defend their property or their rights, the Europeans would slaughter them without mercy, as has ever been the custom in such cases, and is so to this day. So long as papal anathemas were feared by the other nations of Europe, the Portuguese were but little molested in their monopoly of the bodies and souls of these millions of Africans; but in due time the Dutch and English appeared, hungry for a share, and were soon deep in the African trade for ivory, gold, and slaves, bargaining and kidnapping, attended with constant fighting with the natives and with each other, the French and Portuguese joining in the fray. It was a sight indeed for high heaven to smile upon, the Christian nations of Europe thus snarling like hyenas over the African and his possessions, while easily reconciling the most infamous outrages with the tenets of their faith. The Dutch and English, by stirring up the natives against the French, Spanish, and Portuguese were soon in the ascendant, the states-general of Holland planting settlements, and establishing Fort Nassau at Mori, but later transferring them to the Dutch West India Company. The occupation of the Gold coast by the Portuguese covered a period of 160 years, from 1482 to 1642, while the Dutch remained for 232 years.

In 1618 James I of England granted a charter to Sir Robert Rich and certain London merchants for a joint stock company trading to Guinea. A second charter was granted by Charles I in 1631 to Sir Richard Young, Sir Kenelm Digby and others, the traffic in slaves being their chief object, as the gold and ivory trade had by this time almost disappeared. Slaves had already been brought from the African coast by the Portuguese, and the Spaniards had their slave mart, the traffic being sanctioned by the pope in 1517, and increasing with such rapidity that by 1539 the sales of human beings reached 12,000 a year. Sir John Hawkins opened the barter for England in 1563. Forts were built and posts established on the African coast; buying and kidnapping began in earnest and with every facility to "take niggers and carry them to foreign parts” at the lowest possible price. A third charter was bestowed in 1662 on the Company of Royal Adventurers of England trading to Africa, including among men of exalted rank the king's brother, James duke of York, who besides other contracts agreed to supply the British West Indies with 3,000 Negro slaves annually. Another company of royal adventurers trading to Africa was organized in 1672 with a capital £111,000, the king and the duke of York being among the members. The English built forts in addition to those they had already on the coast, thus greatly increasing their facilities for supplying the world with African products, chiefly in the form of slaves.

More battles and butcheries followed, whenever the people raised objections to the stealing of their property or the kidnapping of those who were to be carried off to death or bondage. In 1698 the restrictions on the trade were removed, and English owners of plantations in America were permitted to obtain their slaves direct from Africa, paying to the government ten percent of the value of the cargo. This act, on its expiration in 1712 was renewed by parliament.

There was quite a choice as to quality in the human chattels exported from Africa. The occupation of the country was divided among many tribes or nations the Denkeras and Ashantees being conspicuous in Guinea. When the natives were at war with each other the slave business was good, for then the prisoners taken on either side were offered in the market; hence European buyers found it to their interest to foster enmity not only among the aborigines but against all rival purchasers. The English Gold coast brand was regarded with highest favor in the West Indies. These goods were called Koromantees, from Cormantine, the place where the English first obtained their supplies. They were of a nobler race, and while more difficult of control, displayed greater courage and endurance than others, and commanded in price £3 or £4 a head more at the plantations.

The trade was not without its tricks. Young men from fourteen to twenty years of age were most desirable, but the middle-aged were made to look young by shaving the head and anointing the body with palm-oil, the teeth in their decay being the greatest tell-tale. Exporters usually purchased their cargo from native dealers, kidnappers, and chiefs at war. The buyer first had his goods examined by a surgeon, and then branded by a red-hot silver instrument on the breast or shoulder. The men were then ironed in couples, and placed in dungeons until shipped. On board the vessel they were fed twice a day, and allowed on deck during fair weather, though still in irons. So long as the trade was legitimate, that is under protection of government, the slaves were fairly well treated if they remained quiet; for their owners had the same interest in keeping them alive and landing them in good condition as if they had been so many cattle; but when the traffic became illicit, requiring more secrecy and watchfulness, and also more subject to outbreaks, their sufferings were something horrible, so much so that many thousands killed themselves to escape from their physical and mental agony. Then came the pirates their former nests in the West Indies, now broken up by government cruisers, plundering, capturing, burning, adding if possible to the terrors of the scene.

In 1750 parliament passed "an act for extending and improving the trade to Africa," and a fifth English company was created, called the African Company of Merchants, whereafter 10,000 slaves were carried annually to the West Indies from the Gold coast alone. Meanwhile with their chief town and fort at Cape coast, British influence on the Gold coast increased, until as in India the affairs of the natives and the manipulation of rulers were in their hands. The wars of the Ashantees and Fantees assumed greater proportions, which gave the English still further opportunity to place their own tools as kings, and thus make still more secure their foothold, not only as against the natives but against other European nations. The slave trade was in due time formally abolished by European governments, but nevertheless the traffic continued until a much later period.

In regard to the gold mines in this vicinity, after a lapse of two centuries they were reopened in the auriferous district of Wassaw, on the head waters of the Bonsa River, a tributary of the Ancobra. Notwithstanding the many malarious swamps thereabout, rendering the climate deadly for Europeans, several companies were formed in 1877 and afterward; first the African Gold Coast company, then the Swanzy, the Effuenta, and others, a French company, the Abosso, later commencing operations at the place of that name. The cost of transportation, however, about $150 a ton, prevented the working of the mines at a profit, whereupon still other companies were formed with coast harbors nearer the mines.

The continent has been explored by travelers ambitious for fame, many of whom lost their lives in consequence. Mungo Park in 1795 crossed from the Gambia to the Niger, which latter river he followed to Silla, returning home in 1797. In a second journey in 1805 he descended the Niger to its mouth, passing Timbuctoo, and being killed by the natives at Boussa. Later voyages and explorations I can but briefly mention. The journey of Mungo Park was followed by that of the Portuguese Lacerda, in 1798, from Mozambique to Cazembe, where he died. In 1796-1798 Homemann set forth from Cairo and was never heard from after reaching Murzuk. Two Portuguese traders crossed the continent from Angola to the Zambese in 1802-1806. Then there were the expeditions of Tuckey to the river Congo in 1816; Lyon and Richie from Tripoli to Murzuk in 1819; Denham, Clapperton and Oudney from Tripoli across the desert to Lake Chad in 1822-1823; and a score of others before 1857, when Hahn and Rath, Bastian, Du Chaillu, Barton, and Speke appeared upon the scene. Silva Porto and Livingstone crossed the continent in 1853-1856, the latter being in the lake region in 1861. After this came Baker and a host of additional adventurers, winding up with Cameron, Stanley, Gordon, and the rest. The continent has been crossed many times by prospectors for gold from Cape Colony as far north as the Zambezi River, or even Mozambique and Zanzibar on one side and Lower Guinea on the other.

Nearly 3,000 years ago was planted on the coast of Africa the commercial city of Carthage, which was 100 years old before Rome was founded. For several centuries the history of Carthage is the history of northern Africa, Carthaginian domination extending during that period from the altars of the Philæni to the Pillars of Hercules, including as provinces the Balearic isles, Malta, and Sardinia, besides settlements in Gaul and Spain. A triple wall enclosed the city whose harbors were artificial, the most conspicuous feature within the walls being the Byrsa citadel later occupied by the church of St. Louis.

The ground about Carthage and Tunis is historic, even though the history itself be dead. Long before Tyrian Dido built her city, the white walls of Tunis glistened in the sunshine. Some people fancy that four or five thousand years ago the Canaanites despoiled by Joshua found refuge here; others that the first settlers of Tunis were the Amalekites and Philistines of King David’s time. Here is where Regulus defeated the Carthaginians; there is where the Vandals and Romans fought and from this shore sailed Genseric, for such parts as God should permit. Five millions of human beings were slaughtered on this coast within a period of twenty years, during the wars of Justinian. Then came the Saracens, and after them Louis IX of France; then Barbarossa, who taught piracy so effectually that the people practiced it successfully for centuries; then Andrea Doria for Charles V captured Tunis and killed 30,000 of the inhabitants.

One of the greatest engineering works of ancient Africa was the aqueduct which supplied Carthage with 7,000,000 gallons of water a day. It was 40 miles in length, and mainly in the form of a series of stone arches. Near Susa, the amphitheater of El Djem, or the Thysdrus as it was called, was regarded as the African coliseum, second only to that of Rome, being 430 feet in length by 370 wide, and with an arena 238 by 182 feet. In the games of its amphitheaters Africa copied Rome, and in the cruelty of its human sacrifices, Moloch, whose idol stood before the temple of Baal, need not blush before the demons of any religion created by man.

Tunis chiefly depended for future happiness on the mosque of Jami-al- Zeituna, which is likewise a college having a library where Islamism is taught. In the European quarter are many modern built houses, mainly after the pattern of the French. The bey's palace contains some fine Moorish decorations in stucco arabesque. To repair the ancient aqueduct the bey, Mohammed-al-Sadik, expended $2,500,000. Now, as in the time of Leo Africanus, the leading manufactures are textiles, and especially silk-weaving, the latter dating from the corning of the Moors from Spain. Oils and essences, tobacco, and leather are likewise here manipulated. While the bazaars of Tunis are fine, they are not equal to those of Constantinople and Cairo. As in all Muslim cities, traffic is arranged to save trouble for the purchaser by bringing together as many shops of a kind as possible.

The center of the oriental perfumery trade is here, and for this commodity alone is set apart an arcade 400 feet in length. Tripoli is a small Moorish city, with narrow, dirty, unpaved streets, and several mosques; it is the capital, forming with Benghazi, since 1835, a Turkish vilayet.

The Berbers, of what is now the French dependency of Tunis, are more Arabian than those of Algeria and Morocco. Their tribal self-government is democratic, their laws being different from those of the Koran; and they are a pastoral rather than an agricultural people, the pastoral nomads being almost as indolent and even more unruly than in the eleventh century, when first the country fell under Arab domination.

The Barbary Coast throughout its whole extent is well supplied with mineral wealth, iron and lead being the metals most widely distributed. Besides pine and deciduous oak, cork and zen trees cover large areas in Tunis, though the country is less wooded than in ancient times. Large grain crops are raised, notwithstanding imperfect cultivation; the olive and the vine are here conspicuous; in the uplands is esparto grass, and on the oases of Jerid the date palm. It was the grain fields and flocks, the oil and wine, the mines and fisheries of Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria, and Morocco that made Carthage great. Tripoli has some fertile land along the sea, the interior consisting of sandy plains and mountains which unite to form the Atlas range in Tunis. The figs, dates, and olives of Tripoli are of excellent quality, and prominent among articles of commerce and manufacture are pottery, castor-oil, ivory, and ostrich feathers.

In Algeria the Atlas range rises in places to a height of 7,000 feet, the Sahara side being a land of fruit and pastures, whose people are gardeners and shepherds while the inhabitants of the fertile basins of the Mediterranean zone are largely grain-growers. The Berbers, the aborigines of the country, though inveterate thieves, are an active industrious race, with villages in the higher elevations, and not without skill in the manufacture of guns, gunpowder, carpets, leather articles, and such agricultural implements as they use. There are also the turbulent Bedouins, or nomadic Arabs, who live largely in tents; the Moors, a mixture of races dwelling in villages near the coast; the Jews, money-lenders and merchants of the towns; also Turks, Kolougis, Negroes, and Mozabites; all these in addition to the Europeans,—French, Spaniards, Italians, English, Germans and the rest.

Under Roman rule towns were built roads made, and commerce and agriculture extended. But in the fifth century the Romans were expelled from Africa by the Vandals, who in turn were driven out by Belisarius the Saracens acquiring the mastery in the seventh century, after which the country was divided into small states under petty chieftains, and straightway relapsed into barbarism.

In the eleventh century arose the religious sect of Morabites, who founded the dynasty of the Almoravides, followed in the succeeding century by the Almohades, upon the downfall of whom the country was again broken up as before. Not content with driving the Moors from Spain, Ferdinand sent an array to Africa in 1505, and captured among other places Oran and Algiers. After this came the Turks, and then the Spaniards again, and finally France, and always the pirates, with whom the invaders were indeed one, as many of them were largely in the piracy business themselves, the most important point being on which side were the aggressors and on which the victims. Of late the country has become commercially very prosperous, discounts at the bank of Algeria doubling within a decade.

Even by the Romans Algeria was deemed a rich country, and is so regarded at this day, although the mineral deposits have never been fully developed, copper, lead, and iron being especially abundant. There is much fertile soil, five or six millions of acres being devoted to the raising of wheat and barley alone, while large areas are planted in cotton flax tobacco and vineyards. Oran ships large quantities of esparto grass, used in the manufacture of paper. Algeria imports from France, Spain, Great Britain, and Italy $35,000,000 worth of cotton-goods, sugar, wines, salted fish, and other commodities, exporting livestock, hides, wool, vegetables, tobacco, raw cotton, olive oil, flax and ores, to the value of about $25,000,000.

Before Algeria became a French province, and while in possession of the Turks, it comprised the four provinces of Algiers, Titterie, Tlemcen, and Constantine, the last three governed by beys, under the general rulership of the dey. It is now divided into the three departments of Algiers, Oran, and Constantine.

Morocco marks the western verge of ancient Arab occupation. In area it is twice as large as Algeria, and five times larger than England. Though old in history, and bordering the highway of nations, there are portions of the country, as the Rif hills, which still remain unexplored by Europeans. The coast towns were founded by various nations, and destroyed and built again. Portugal, Spain, and Italy regarding it as rare sport to bombard the little towns along the Barbary Coast on any slight pretext. Though averaging 4,000 or 5,000 feet in height, there are peaks in this west end of the Atlas chain rising from 10,000 to 13,000 feet above the ocean.
There are extensive mineral deposits in Morocco, —Jebel Hadid, or the iron mountain; copper and lead near Tetuan; antimony and gold in various places. Among the mountains are areas of woodland, though small as compared with the forest wealth of ancient times. As a rule the Moors will labor only to satisfy their requirements; and it is said that not more than one hundredth part of the agricultural land in Morocco is under cultivation. The camel is the animal drudge of the country, horses being used for war and personal service or display. There are horned cattle, sheep, and fowls in abundance. In the coast fisheries is a never failing source of wealth.

For beauty of situation the city of Morocco is unsurpassed, embowered as it is in groves and gardens between the mountains and the sea.

It is surrounded by a dilapidated wall 30 feet high, with square towers 360 feet apart. The tower of the Kutubia mosque is the most conspicuous object; the houses are not high, and are for the most part built of clay; the sultan’s palaces cover considerable ground, walled in, and with fine parks and gardens. The making of and working in red and yellow leather employs a large number of men. In place of its ancient population of 700,000, the city has now about 50,000 inhabitants.

Fez is a city of lofty minarets, stately domes, and flat-roofed houses, surrounded by a crumbling wall, but seated amid a plain of verdure streaked with silvery streams, gigantic aloes marking the paths which intersect the vast fields of grain. Founded in 808, before the end of the century, if we may credit the historian Kaldun, Fez rivaled Baghdad in wealth and splendor, and was called the Mecca of the west and the Athens of Africa. Chief among its numerous mosques were those of El Caruin and Edris. In the middle of the eleventh century Gregory IX founded here a bishopric. Under the Almoaci schools of science and philosophy were established, with a large library of Greek and Latin manuscripts, and hither came scholars and learned men from every quarter of the Levant. At that time the city, with its 86 gates and 30 suburbs, had great hospitals and baths, 10,000 shops, 90,000 houses, and 800 mosques. It now contains, among its 150,000 inhabitants, more than 8,000 Jews with their rabbis and synagogues, and stores of hidden gold. The women array themselves in gorgeous apparel,—red jacket and waistcoat covered with heavy gold braid and embroidery, green cloth petticoat trimmed with gold, flaming colored handkerchief covering the head, and red or blue silk sash round the waist.

Another holy Muslim city is Kairwan, some 80 miles from Tunis, which place it somewhat resembles, though by no means conspicuous for wealth or luxurious living. The mosque at Kairwan is not unlike a fort with minarets and stone towers. Within are200 columns of marble jasper and porphyry, of Saracen Greek and Roman patterns.

Throughout the sultanate or empire of Morocco, rich men, both Jews and Mohammedans, make a practice of hiding their money, as a protection alike from government and banditti. Governors of provinces are frequently arrested by order of the sultan and thrown into the dungeon of Fez, there to remain with frequent bastinadoes until the hidden treasure is revealed. The city of Morocco, where are many goldsmiths and makers of enameled pottery, exports wax, wool, and hides, and obtains from abroad European silks and trinkets. Tetuan makes inlaid damascened guns, and Mechinez and Fez swords of fine workmanship.

Mechinez boasts the most beautiful women in Morocco, and the finest gardens in Africa. It is said that in 1703 the imperial palace, founded by Muley Ismael, was two miles in circumference, and contained 4,000 women and 1,000 children. Nearby was a great market, connected with the city by a road having on either side 50 fountains; also a grove of great olive trees, seven mosques, a garrison of artillery to hold in check the Berbers, and a government treasury containing $100,000,000. It was whispered in times past that within the palace was another palace, enclosed within three stone walls and lighted from above. It was entered by a low passage having three iron doors, and leading into a subterranean room where 300 slaves four times a year counted and packed up the gold and silver to be sent to the sultan, his imperial highness being present.

The slaves were confined to this sepulchral treasure vault for life, never being permitted to behold the light of day. Around the great hall were standing ten earthen jars, which contained the heads of ten slaves who once tried to steal and escape, the operation which placed them there being performed by Muley Soliman.

The Muslims hate Christians with a bitter hatred, and have just cause to do so. When landing at Tangiers the passengers are brought ashore on the backs of Jews, of whom there are many here, both Spanish and Moorish. Christians are specially obnoxious to the mountaineers of the coast range, the Riffians of Morocco, and other Berber and the tribes, the Kabyles of Algeria, Tuaregs of the desert. All the tribes are fierce warriors, and the richest among them are those occupying the fertile valleys of the mountainous region, their possessions consisting chiefly of fine horses and many cattle. The nineteenth century was well advanced before this huge nest of pirates by sea and brigands by land was rooted out, Tangiers being bombarded by the French in 1844, though many years later both piracy and brigandage were practiced as opportunity offered.

Tetuan was populated largely by refugees from Granada, when the Moors were driven from Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella. They were a people superior to others of their race, and their city displayed more refinement and luxury than those in its vicinity. The wealth they had they did not hide away, but employed it for the betterment of themselves and their neighbors. Tetuan is larger than Tangiers; the streets are wider, and the houses better built. Of the 22,000 inhabitants, 14,000 are Moors and 7,000 Jews, the greater part of the remainder being Spaniards. Business centers among the guilds, though the shops where diverse branches are conducted are open side by side.

Sahara, lying between the Barbary coast and the Sudan, and extending from the Atlantic ocean through Africa and into Asia, is almost as large as Europe, although it has a population of less than 3,000,000, Arabs, Berbers, and Negroes living in tents and brush huts, while Europe, where the mind as well as the body is nurtured and cultured supports more than a hundred times that number in substantial structures. The surface one would hardly call diversified, notwithstanding the undulating sand-dunes of the west and north, and the mountains and plateaus of the south and east. There are several trade routes over which the commerce is considerable; as from Morocco to Cairo; from Kuka to Murzuk and Tripolis; from Tripolis to Sudan; from Tinibuctoo to Tripolis; from Tunis and Algiers to Timbuctoo; from Timbuctoo to Morocco. The Sahara is by no means all desert; the northern part, though mountainous, has much fertile land of the date-growing quality, while the southern section, which borders on the great desert, is alternately sterile sand and oasis. The Sahara villages are engroved among fruit-trees, conspicuous among which, besides the date-palm, are the peach apricot fig and pomegranate, and also the vine. In the mountains nearest the coast are forests of cedar maple ash and other trees, some of them very large. Besides the several grains, cotton sugar and tobacco are cultivated. In some parts of the 2000 by 1000 miles of sandy stretch, there is a temperature in the hottest days of summer of 150 degrees Fahrenheit, which is exceedingly severe on caravans where the wells are ten days journey or more apart. Entire tribes have been known to perish where the wells have dried up, and no one but an acclimatized Moor, Berber, or Arab could live for a single summer day without water in the heart of the rainless district.

South of the Sahara, the Sudan, or country of the blacks, as the medieval Arabs named it, though likewise called Nigritia, or Negroland, has an area of 2,000,000 square miles, and a population, perhaps, of 80,000,000.

In elevation it stands midway between the low-lying sands of the desert and the high plateau, varying from arid sterility on the north to fertilizing moisture in the south. The climate is tropical, with rains from April to October; redundant forest vegetation interspersed with prolific alluvial soil, and heat dry or damp, everywhere. The plants most cultivated besides grain are cotton, tobacco, hemp, and indigo. Among the multitude of Sudanese animals the elephant stands first, and as a source of wealth, quite alone. Beasts of prey are innumerable, and here has ever been an unfailing source whence Asiatics and Europeans could draw their slaves.

The elephant is rapidly disappearing from Africa, and with the decline of the ivory trade the slave trade declines, as thousands of slaves were bought to carry the ivory to market. When the diamond and gold fields of the country have also been exhausted, it will be ready to turn its attention to something more valuable and develop its real resources. At$2.50 a pound the tusks of an elephant are worth $150, while the elephant itself aside from its tusks is worth little or nothing. Slaves, ivory, diamonds, and gold are not the most solid foundations for wealth, and until these have disappeared, slight use will be made of the immense tracts of fertile land available for settlement.

In the dark continent, as elsewhere, fortune is fickle, debasing the proud and exalting those of low degree. Tripoli traders from Bornoo in the Sudan tell of one Rabah, a tall bony Negro, recently a slave but now a ruler absolute, with an army at his back, having the latest and best repeating rifles and a treasure-house filled with gold, silver, ivory, feathers, and coral. First as lieutenant under Zebehr Pasha, formerly Egyptian governor of Darfur, then as tax collector in the Sudan, making his way with a band of fighting men to Baghirmir, southeast of Lake Chad, he not only worsted the Mahdists, but conquered the country, capturing Ashem, the Sultan of Bornoo and his capital, Kuka, on Lake Chad, and defeating Klari, Ashem's nephew, who attempted to succeed his uncle as sultan.

As in other savage lands, slavery has been common in Africa from the earliest times, but both the domestic and foreign slave-trade has been carried on throughout this continent as in no other part of the world. Perhaps it arose from Noah’s curse of Canaan, and if so it comes hard on his innocent descendants; or it may be that the innumerable tribes and nations constantly at war with each other found it more profitable to enslave than to kill their captives. Then when the Mohammedans appeared as purchasers, and after them the Christians, kidnapping and slave-hunting became lucrative occupations.

In truth the African slave-trade may almost be termed indigenous; for it would appear to spring from the soil. Of three natives sent on a mission, two will often conspire against the third and sell him into slavery. Fathers sell their children, husbands their wives, and mothers their babes.

Every year are brought into Morocco from the Sudan 3,000 slave boys and girls eight or ten years old, many of whom die of home-sickness. The ruling price is $6 for a boy and $12 for a girl, the government receiving five percent on the value of the importation. As now conducted Negro slavery in Morocco is of a mild and patriarchal character, the slaves being well treated, and for the most part not caring to be free. They prefer being provided for by a master rather than to assume the cares and responsibilities of life on their own account. In all the interior cities are marketplaces for the sale of slaves but on the seaboard the traffic is conducted secretly, owing to European disapprobation; hence prices here range higher, say from $25 to $100, or sometimes even $200.

In equatorial Africa, as in Morocco, domestic slavery is a practice entirely distinct from the foreign slave trade. The former institution, where the slave remains among his friends and relatives, is kindly cared for, and relieved of the responsibility of providing for himself, is a very different thing from the traffic in human beings by the followers of Christ and Mohammed.

The three Africas, north south and central are as distinct in history and character as Egypt and Palestine, or as Phoenicia and Spain. Of the great rivers of the continent, the Nile, the Zambezi, the Orange, Congo, and Niger, the course of the last two differs not greatly from the line of the equator. Of the lakes several assume the proportions of inland seas, as the Nyassa, 350 miles long; Tanganyika, 450 miles, and the Victoria and Albert, each with a surface of about 30,000 square miles. Inland commerce at the equator usually follows the courses of the rivers, not in a continuous stream as the water flows, but in stages and sections. For example, an inland tribe having slaves, ivory, ebony, india-rubber, or barwood to sell, cannot load its boats and descend the river to a white settlement, but must hand over its merchandise to the tribe below, to be passed on to the next, and so on, the last one selling the goods, retaining its commissions and passing on what is left to the one above, which thereupon takes its toll, until too often the amount that reaches the original shippers is little or nothing. This is a custom of long standing, and for a native to attempt to violate it means confiscation and slavery.

The staple food of the equatorial tribes is the manioc, besides which are yams, squashes, sugar-cane, and plantains. It is only in this region that the genuine Negro is found, he of the coal-black skin and curly hair and protruding lips. The people of the southern and eastern interior, not to mention those of the northern seaboard or of the southern end of the continent, have not the form and features which characterize the dwellers in the slave-yielding lands of the Guinea coast and the river Niger, but rather a brown skin, with Negro features wholly absent or but slightly pronounced. The wealth of the equatorial native consists less in what he has than in what he does not want; nature cares for him, and all nature is his; with that he is content. Usually buried with the dead African, as constituting his entire property, are pipe, knife, bowl, and bow. The black highlander grows a kind of millet, which constitutes his food, and of clothing he has none.

The Gold Coast, in Upper Guinea, was so called from the yellow metal found there, first probably by the Phoenicians, but certainly by the Dutch and Portuguese, the latter building a fort at Axim to protect the trade.

Upon the later reopening of the mines there were unmistakable evidences of ancient workings by people other than natives. Deep tunnels, in one of which was an antique bronze lamp, were discovered, while primitive peoples never dig far for anything. Though not yielding as in former days, and with a hot climate unhealthy to foreigners, the Gold coast is still largely auriferous throughout its entire extent. Besides this the rich alluvial soil responds readily to cultivation, sending forth in abundance fruits and vegetables of all kinds, while the forests abound with merchantable timber. Here are found the egg-plant, the kola nut, the betel nut, besides ginger, indigo, the pineapple, and scores of other products.

Back from the seaboard of the Gold coast is Ashantee, a vast expanse of forest land where is still much gold left. Grain, fruit, and vegetables become prolific when put into the deep rich soil, and there is some manufacturing in the way of cotton cloth, pottery, and articles in gold and silver. It is a great thing to be monarch of Ashantee, with 3,333 wives and power to cut off heads at pleasure, better than to be king of England with only one wife and no power at all. On the other hand the nobility are not so independent as the nobles of England, though some of them have 1,000 slaves and bushels of gold; for if the king covets aught belonging to a subject, he has but to cut off his head and take it. Any noble who conducts himself circumspectly is permitted once during the year to show his wealth in the streets of Coomassie, greatly to the admiration of the beholders. Care is taken, however, not to display too much unwrought gold, as that falls to royalty on the death of the possessor, and if the noble has much of it, and the king greatly needs it, the owner is liable to sudden death.

Yet more autocratic than his majesty of Ashantee is the king of Dahomey, doubly a king, for to his absolute temporal power is united the spiritual. The latter country derives quite a revenue from the duties on exported palm-oil and ivory, and on all imported articles. The king drives quite a thrifty trade in black maidens, daughters of the nobility and gentry, sent to him as gifts from their parents, and sold to his head men at good round prices, which immediately find their way into the royal pocket.

The Negro republic of Liberia, established in 1822 by American philanthropists, was declared independent in 1847, and as such was later recognized by the leading powers of the world. The climate is hot and the soil rich, all the tropical products being easily grown on the low-lying coast; while the hills of the interior are suitable for cattle raising. Metals are plentiful, though the mines are little worked. Some 18,000 descendants of slaves in the United States were here joined by 1,000,000 natives, and the result was not very flattering. The free black voters of the United States are better content with their political and social privileges in America than they fancy they would be with anything Africa can offer, preferring to sit in judgment over their former masters rather than display their talents in the land of their ancestors .

Congo Free State, with its 802,000 square miles of area or four times the size of France, lies on the equator, and with its great navigable river as a central feature. Among the products ivory and India-rubber lead; then follow cotton, growing wild, coffee, the sugar-cane, resinous and copal gums, palm-oil, piassava, cocoa, pepper, and tobacco. For timber there are mahogany ebony rosewood and teak, and for metals an abundance of copper and iron, as yet almost untouched, probably because the climate is dangerous to Europeans.

Senegambia, mountainous in places, with a low-lying coast on the north and marshlands with rank vegetation between, contains gold and other metals in abundance, and large tracts of rich alluvial land. Animals and plants, of which there are many varieties, are large and prolific, among the former being the wild-bear, lion, and leopard, and among the latter the baobab, acacia, and palm. In the Niger and Senegal swarm crocodiles and their associates, while the trees are filled with chimpanzees and others of the monkey and ape fraternity. The country is occupied by some 10,000,000 Moors and Negroes, divided into numberless tribes, who fight and steal and live on the good things the gods provide. Foreigners here obtain gold, gums, ground- nuts, India-rubber, oil, hides, feathers, ivory wax, coffee, rice, and other products.

Loango has on its seaboard a fine primeval forest interspersed with mangrove swamps, grass prairies, and a tangled undergrowth of tropical vegetation around open parks and lagoons. Here are fragrant jasmines, thickets of lianas, a kind of olive myrtle tree, ipomoeas, and for native fruits the mango and papaw, while ginger and negro-pepper likewise grow wild. The staple food of the natives is manioc, though bananas are also a favorite article of food, while ground-nuts and tobacco are freely cultivated. There are, besides the chimpanzee and gorilla, seven kinds of apes, many birds of gay plumage, and snakes of many varieties. Until a recent period there was a large traffic in slaves, India-rubber and palm-oil being now the chief commodities.

Benguela has a mountainous interior with mines of silver, copper, iron, and salt, and an abundance of animal and vegetable life. Angola, back of its border of barren sandy plain, has tropical wealth of every variety, mineral, animal, and vegetable, conspicuous among which since the decline of the slave trade are gum, wax, and ivory.

Congo has copper mines at Bembe which were early worked by the Portuguese. Malachite is also found, and in the north, iron. Then there has been reported a lake of bitumen, and in several places are garnets, rubies, and the gum-copal, which is used as a varnish. Among the flora the oil-palm is conspicuous, also on the coast is the cashew tree, while cassava, ground nuts, yams, and maize are cultivated in various districts. The king of Congo is a sorry looking monarch, his palace being a hut of reeds, while his nobility and gentry, unable to pay a Bond Street tailor, or obtain credit, must needs go naked.

Calibar has an alluvial soil covered with bush except the small portion which is under cultivation and the rocky interior. Here are for sale bamboo, maize, plantains, sugar, pepper, yams, and ebony and other woods.

Sierra Leone produces ginger, pepper, kola nuts, and cassava, besides coffee, cocoa, and corn. The rainfall of 160 inches is precipitated during nine months of the year. On the river Gambia are several factories, or trading posts, whence come wax, hides, gold-dust, ivory, palm-oil, gum-arabic, ground-nuts, and honey, though shipments are small considering the resources of the country.

During the first half of the present century a marked aversion to the presence of free colored persons existed in nearly all the states of the union, and some of them passed laws for their expulsion. It was thought by many that the best thing for the free Negroes in the United States would be to settle them in colonies on the coast of Africa. In 1815 Paul Cuffee, a wealthy and patriotic colored man, sea captain, of New Bedford, Massachusetts, sailing his own ship, carried thirty-eight passengers mostly at his own cost, to Sierra Leon, and the year following was formed the American Colonization society under whose auspices some 5,000 persons were sent to Liberia, their town being named Monrovia, in honor of James Monroe.

Ancient Ethiopia was renowned for culture and advancement when Greece and Rome were at their best. Now the Ethiopians are widely scattered, being conspicuous in the region round the sources of the Nile, in Abyssinia, and Nubia where are still to be seen remains, of their former civilization.

Abyssinia is a mountainous plateau, with metamorphic rock of a metalliferous nature as a base. The climate is delightful, and the soil fertile. Among its streams are the tributaries of the Nile, recuperated by the periodic rains falling from June till September. Almost anything can be grown, three crops sometimes being raised during the year, coffee is indigenous, and also many fruits. Conspicuous among land animals are the rhinoceros, buffalo, lion, and leopard, and in the rivers hippopotami and crocodiles. The Koran tells the story of Solomon and the queen of Sheba, who came at his bidding from Ethiopia, or Abyssinia, and presented him, among other things, with a son who was named Melech. The king summoned all the birds to appear before him; but the lapwing did not come, whereat the monarch was wroth and ordered the bird to be killed. But presently the lapwing appeared before the king and said, ''I come from Saba, a queen reigning in great magnificence; she and her subjects worship the sun.” Then Solomon sent by the lapwing a letter to Saba, ordering her to come at once and submit herself to him, and accept the true religion. And she came, bringing 500 men slaves and 500 women slaves, 500 bricks of solid gold, a crown, and many other presents, and submitted herself to Solomon and his religion.

The Somali, Mohammedans of Arab descent, in places settled and elsewhere nomadic according to occupation, grow crops of various kinds, raise camels, goats, and fat-tailed sheep, and collect frankincense, myrrh, and other gums, which together with other native products are exported to Arabia and India. Commerce is almost entirely in the hands of Hindu traders, who almost from time immemorial have been settled on various portions of the coast.

In the sultanate of Zanzibar is a soil which will readily produce two grain crops a year, and four of manioc, the staple food. Here also flourish the clove, cocoa-nut, nutmeg, cinnamon, and other trees. The island seems to rest on coralline reefs, and the ancient forests have to a great extent disappeared. The island of Pemba is held by Arabs in large plantations worked by slaves. The Swahili coast is low-lying and swampy, the dense tropical vegetation under a heavy rainfall and hot sun breathing a pestilential air. Here are found the copal-tree and other economic plants, the land being especially adapted to sugar, cotton, coffee, and spices. The city of Zanzibar, the next largest to Alexandria and Tunis on the north and east African coasts, is divided into two districts one, called Shangani, devoted to commerce, government, and the palaces of the sultan, the other the poor quarter occupied by porters, fishermen, and slaves. The imports, largely of cotton cloth and other European articles, reach $6,000,000 as against $1,000,000 in exports of ivory, caoutchouc, sesame seed, and cloves.

From Zanzibar the Arabs carry on a large trade with the interior in ivory and slaves. Over a wide area are planted their encampments, communication with which is kept up at intervals by caravans, well armed and supplied with articles with which to purchase ivory and the slaves to carry it. Between the arrivals of caravans at the several posts the ivory is bought up and collected, and the captives made during the tribal wars, in addition to those who are stolen, furnish the slaves.

The coasts of Somali and Zanzibar are rich in traditions as well as in things material. Here, as in Abyssinia, was one of the many alleged residences of the queen of Sheba, and at Seychelee it is related that Adam and Eve took up their abode after retiring from Eden. At Mombasa stands the fort built by Vasco da Gama in the sixteenth century.

Date and cocoanut plantations are now conspicuous. The reception room of the sultan of Zanzibar glitters with crystal chandeliers, while the walls are hung with red panels bearing quotations from the Koran in gilt letters, and the floor is covered with a thick crimson velvet carpet on which inlaid tables and gilt sofas and chairs with velvet cushions are disposed. In the sultan's harem are 150 women, loaded with costly drapery and jewels.

Chiefs of the petty provinces of the interior delight in playing the part of sultan, having learned the role by contact with the Arabs. They have their royal huts, their black harems, and hiding places for their treasures, and bluster and fight each other as men both white and black have ever done. Besides slaves and ivory, the natives here count among their valuables cattle, and metals wrought in forms of weapons and ornaments.

The Portuguese colony of Mozambique takes its name from a small coral island on which stands the provincial capital. There are other islands which export calumba root, sesame, ivory, wax, and oil-seeds, turtle-fishing being profitable in some places. On the Zambezi River are several settlements, and a native fair is held annually at Zumbo.

Sofala is a land of gold and ivory and apes. Here is yet another Hiram of Tyre and queen of Sheba country, while as with many other places, certain persons have fancied this to be the Ophir of Solomon. In 1587 a Dominican monk, Joas Dos Santos set forth for Mozambique and Sofala, spending eleven years among the Portuguese settlements of those regions. In 1609 he published a work entitled Eastern Ethiopia, in which he writes: "The merchandise from Tete goes down to Sene with the gold which is brought from the market of Massapa, in the kingdom of Monomotapa, where a large quantity is always to be met with, as the great and lofty mountain Fura (or Afura) is close by. Upon this mountain are to be seen the ruins of buildings constructed of stone and lime—a thing which is not to be found in the whole of the Kafir country, where even the houses of the king are only built of wood and earth, and thatched with straw. An old tradition current in this country affirms that these ruins are the remains of the storehouses of the queen of Sheba; further, that this princess got all her gold from these mountains, and that this gold was carried down the river Cuama (Zambezi) to the and taken Ethiopian ocean, thence through the Red sea to the coasts of Ethiopia above Egypt, where this queen dwelt. Others believe that Solomon had these magazines built and, that here was obtained that gold of Ophir with which his navies were laden; that between Afura and Ophir there is no great difference.

It is quite certain that around this mountain range much and very fine gold is found, easily conveyed by means of this river, as is still done by the Portuguese and was done, before them by the Moors of Mozambique and Kilwa; and further, that as in these days gold is earned to India, so in former days it might easily have been taken through the Red sea to Ezion-Geber, and thence to Jerusalem.”

The mountainous interior of Madagascar is bordered by forests, and contains many fertile valleys and plains where rice is raised. Iron and copper are the principal metals; there are also antimony, rock-salt, and plumbago. The flora of the island shows over 3,000 varieties of flowering trees and plants. Nearly all the fruits thrive well and many are indigenous; the inhabitants collectively called Malagasy are of Malayo-Polynesian stock, neither savage nor yet civilized. They follow agriculture after primitive methods, rice being their staple food. A long-handled shovel does the work of oxen and plow, and threshing is performed by beating the bundles of rice upon upright stones. Society consists of three classes, the andriana, or nobles; the hova, or freemen; and the andevo, or slaves. High priest as well as ruler is the king, whose palace is in Antananarivo, the capital, where rush houses are gradually giving place to structures of adobe and stone. The royal mansion and government buildings occupy the hill round which the city is built.

South Africa was originally occupied by some of the lowest types of humanity, Bushmen, Hottentots, and Bantu; nevertheless they were a happy and contented people, with satisfied corporeal wants and living in close communion with nature, while among civilized nations it would be hard to find more practical philosophy, or a nearer solution of the great problem of life,—liberty and the pursuit of happiness. In Zululand are many gods, one among whom is the creator of all and above all. These deities are responsible for everything that happens; nothing is left to chance; by proper attention to signs and omens they may know what the gods would have them do. The spirits of their ancestors afford them lesser gods, while to the Supreme Being they offer propitiatory sacrifice. Among their shrewdest and most able men are the wizard, or witch doctor, the rainmaker, the lightning controller, the ruler of the hail and other like professionals who live and acquire wealth on the credulity of their fellows. They do not in every instance claim supernatural powers for themselves, but act as mediators between gods and men. Every ill as well as every good comes from some deity, but one who may perhaps have been influenced by friend or foe; sickness and death are always the work of an enemy.

The term South Africa includes Cape Colony, Natal, Orange Free State, and Transvaal or the South African Republic. On the eastern side of this southern extremity, of the continent are Gazaland, Sofala, Mozambique, and Zanguebar; on the west Benguela and Guinea; in the interior Bechuanaland and Congo Free State, and stretching far away to the north the Great Desert.

Traces of occupation by a people superior to the present aborigines are found between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. Except on the seaboard, where there is some malaria in places, the air is dry and healthy. The cool season is from May to November; a hot, moist, and enervating atmosphere prevails during the remaining months. A mean temperature of from 60 degrees to 70 degrees extends over large areas, rising above or falling below this at various points. The average annual rainfall at Grahamstown is 32 inches; Pietermaritzburg 30 inches; Capetown 23 inches; Graaff Reinet 13 inches; Worcester 11 inches; Mossel Bay 12 inches; Simonstown 27 inches.

Before the coming of the Europeans South Africa swarmed with game, the lion, leopard, elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, giraffe, zebra, antelope, buffalo, and many others of strange form and name being common. Then there are the hyena, wolf, wild dog, wild hog, baboon, and of birds, the partridge, pheasant, guinea-fowl, ostrich, and bustard.

On the coasts of South Africa are grown sugar-cane, tobacco, rice, coffee, and vegetables of many kinds, and in the interior flourish all the grains known to civilization, the uplands being devoted to grazing. The vine is prolific, the average yield in the best Cape districts being 380 gallons of wine to 1,000 vines. Land and labor are cheap, and irrigation encouraged by the several governments. Forests are few and good timber scarce. Mining, the most prominent industry, is mainly in the hands of large companies the, diamond fields of Kimberley being the largest in the world, while there are gold and silver in the Transvaal, and copper in Namaqualand.

For seventy miles along the Vaal river 1000 diamond-diggers gather stones to the value of £50,000 a year. Coal is plentiful on the upper plains, in the Stormberg Mountains and on the Zambezi.

Vasco da Gama was on the Natal coast on Christmas day, 1497; the Dutch were there in 1595; and in 1620 appeared the English. A Dutch settlement was established at Table Bay by 100 Hollanders under Jan van Riebeeck in 1651; trade with the Hottentots was opened; grain, fruits, and the vine were introduced from northern lands; mining was attempted but without important results; success in agriculture was more pronounced. The rule of Van Riebeeck was followed by that of other Dutch commanders and governors, and in 1685 Huguenots settled in Drakenstein and French Hoek.

Permanent British occupation began in 1806, after wars with Holland and France, and the inevitable slaughter of the aborigines was inaugurated by the first Kafir war, as it was called, in 1811, at the end of which it is needless to add the English found their territory greatly extended. A second Kafir war in 1819, and a third in 1835, gave the English all they desired at that time of South Africa. Slavery was abolished in 1834, about one third of the value of the 35,000 slaves then in the colony being nominally allowed to the owners, but the greater part of it found its way into the pockets of government agents. So disgusted were the farmers, especially the Dutch Boers with British rule, that more than 10,000 of them abandoned their possessions and crossed the Orange river.

Cape Town became the metropolis, with a population in 1895, including its suburbs, of more than 100,000. It is a handsome city occupying a beautiful site at the head of Table Bay and near the foot of Table Mountain, the old-fashioned houses formerly clustered under shelter of the fort which Van Riebeeck erected in 1652, being replaced by buildings of modern design. It is well paved, well lighted, with a plentiful supply of water and with ail the appendages of a city of metropolitan rank. There are hotels, newspapers, streetcars, post and telegraph offices, churches, hospital, government buildings, railway, and breakwater. There are also the public library, university, and museum, a government house, and botanical gardens. The houses of parliament were completed in 1886 at a cost of £220,000.

The breeding of Spanish merino sheep was begun in Bredasdorp by J. F. Reitz in 1812, and in the mountains not far distant were raised horses and mules of excellent stock. Beaufort West has many fine sheep-walks, and the lands around Port Elizabeth, besides containing minerals, are of the best quality both for cultivation and pasture. Grahamstown is a pretty place, surrounded by a fertile country. The manufactories of South Africa are numerous but not large; wages are good, varying from the equivalent of $1.25 a day for laborers to as much as $3 or $4 for miners and mechanics, farm labor being mainly performed by natives, who receive from $2 to $4 a month with rations. In 1854 an epidemic, arising from night malaria, carried off 70,000 horses, thus seriously crippling an important industry. Ostrich farming is a prominent and fairly profitable occupation.

Durban the seaport, and Pietermaritzburg the capital of Natal, with populations of somewhat less than 30,000 and 20,000 respectively, are similar in most respects to other colonial towns of English origin. Each has its town-hall, costing about £40,000, besides markets, hospitals, churches, and other buildings of a public character.

The people of Pietermaritzburg are justly proud of their park and botanical garden, the latter costing £60,000. The revenue and expenditure of Natal are about £1,000,000 per annum; imports £2,000,000 and exports £1,000,000. A considerable portion of the imports, however, are for adjacent colonies.

In establishing themselves at Natal, the English deemed it better to conciliate the powerful Zulu chief, Chaka, than to fight him. By means of gifts and a pacific attitude, they obtained permission to settle at Durban in 1823. Then followed the usual aggressions that attend the so-called progress of civilization and Christianity in these distant lands. At the close of the Zulu and Transvaal wars the native warriors were few in number and shattered in strength.

Natal is rich in fertile soils and verdant landscapes. Rising in terraces from the seaboard to a grass-covered plateau 4,000 feet high, well watered by streams and possessing coal and other minerals in abundance, it is a land of almost limitless possibilities. The colony exports annually gold to the value of £250,000, Cape Colony £7,500,000, and Transvaal £3,500,000. Witwatersrand, the most promising of all the Transvaal gold districts, is an undulating plain, 6,000 feet above sea level. The principal discoveries were made between 1854 and 1885, at which latter date the government declared nine farms adjacent to be portions of the public gold-field, whereupon the district was rushed by diggers.

The Orange Free State, 4,000 to 5,000 feet above ocean's level, is mainly a stock-raising country, the chief town being Bloemfontein. The Great Karroo plateau is between the Orange and Molopo rivers, and of this the continuation is Bechuanaland. Mashonaland, in the Chartered Company’s territory, is a gold-yielding district, and though hardly to be compared with Witwatersrand, is honeycombed with ancient workings. North of the Zambezi the soil is fertile; the Milangi plateau has an annual rainfall of from 60 to 70 inches.

The Orange country has for basis of wealth abundant agricultural, mineral, and pastoral resources. The surface consists for the most part of a series of undulating treeless plains 4,000 or 5,000 feet above the sea, sloping northward to the river Vaal and southward to the Orange River, across which are the diamond fields of Kimberley and Griqualand West. Coal is here utilized and in the drift deposits along the river-beds are found pebbles of value and precious stones. Where once were the elephant, lion, rhinoceros, and giraffe are now sheep, goats, horses, cattle, and ostriches.

Mainly on account of the hatred entertained for the English was founded and built up by the Hollanders the Transvaal republic, Andries Pretorius, in 1848, placing himself at the head of the emigrant Boers then in the country, among the later presidents being Burgers and Kruger. The Lydenburg gold mines in the north, and the diamond developments in the south directed attention to the country, stimulated railway building, and the growth of towns, especially that of Pretoria, the capital, which has its government house and other imposing structures, as the raadzaal, or parliament house, a fine building for an African colony costing £138,000. To the, national bank in the same vicinity is attached the state mint There are scores of smaller towns, mining and agricultural, of which it is not necessary here to speak.

Transvaal, or the South African republic, is a platter-shaped plateau, for the most part with a dry invigorating atmosphere and richer in mineral, than in agricultural resources. Here are nearly all the metals in abundance, precious or otherwise, besides diamonds and other beautiful stones these vast and undeveloped treasures being found embedded in porphyry, quartz, clay slates, and conglomerates. There are some forests, and much bush and grass land, stock-raising being the chief occupation of the Boers settled hereabout. Yet in some places two annual crops can be raised, and elsewhere tobacco, semi-tropical fruits and the vine thrive well. Among native animals are the elephant, giraffe, zebra, rhinoceros, and others, all of which are gradually giving place to beasts of northern domestication.

To the Transvaal gold-fields Johannesburg, with a population in 1895 of something less than 50,000, owes its rapid growth and lively traffic. Sheep and cattle-raising were the main objects that brought men to these parts, and when gold was found in 1854, the government would not allow prospecting, lest the influx of foreigners should disturb the healthier industries . The restriction was removed, however, and in 1872 a reward was offered for the discovery of new and profitable fields. In 1886 the Sheba mine was opened and brought into the district 10,000 miners. Then was started the town of Barberton, and hundreds of wild schemes and limited liability companies were floated. The output of gold for 1894 was about 2,000,000 ounces.

The diamond fields of South Africa are at Griqualand West, near the southern extremity of the continent, and about equidistant from the east and west coasts and Port Elizabeth, which is on the same parallel as Cape town, and about the same as Adelaide, Australia, on the one side, and Montevideo, South America, on the other, namely, south latitude 34 degrees. The many small original claims have been consolidated into four principal mines, the Kimberley, Dutoitspan, De Beers, and Bultfontein. In order to meet the demands of all comers, the ground was at first cut up into strips of 31 feet square, for which a monthly license of ten shillings was paid, some of these little patches selling within a few weeks for 100 apiece, and within a few years for £10,000 or £15,000. The four mines were later controlled by two companies, employing several thousand miners, superintendents, clerks, brokers, and storekeepers.

In 1854 the country was nominally held by the Orange river sovereignty, and occupied by the followers of a Griqua chief named Waterboer. Later the sovereignty became a Dutch republic, and the country being open, bleak, and inhospitable, little attention was given to it, until in 1867 John O'Reilly, a travelling trader, saw at the house of a Boer named Niekerk a stone which attracted his attention. It was among some pebbles with which Niekerk's boy was playing. O'Reilly proposed to have it tested, and should he sell it, to return to the owner half the proceeds, which was done, the governor, Sir Philip Wodehouse becoming the purchaser at £500. Great was the excitement which followed, and soon the country was alive with prospectors and diggers, joint stock companies being formed at Cape Colony and Natal to search for diamonds in Griqualand West and especially on the Vaal river. A diamond was found in the plaster of a farm house at Dutoitspan, and the stone which led to the discovery of the Kimberley mine was picked up by a young man named Rawstorne, in the same vicinity. Another large brilliant, purchased in 1869 by a Dutchman from a Griqua native for £400 in goods, was sold soon afterward for £10,000. It was called the Star of South Africa, and has since been valued at £25,000.

A dispute arose between Waterboer and the Free State as to the ownership of the diamond fields, which were all within an area of three or four miles. Thereupon the British government stepped in, obtaining in 1871 a cession from Waterboer of his rights, and in 1876 paying the Free State £90,000 for its claim. Then set in an era of diamond mining in South Africa which virtually put an end to the industry in Brazil, just as the Brazilian developments had closed all but the richest workings in India. Up to 1895 the yield from South African diamond fields was thirteen tons, valued at £60,000,000. The diamondiferous soil of these parts changes at a depth of 100 or 150 feet from a soft, loamy, yellowish earth to a hard blue clay, the real matrix, which crumbles on exposure to the air. The mass as taken from the mine, after being thus disintegrated, is reduced to such small compass by rotary washing machines that the precious stones are readily discovered.

The Kimberley mine, first known as the Colesberg Koppij, though not so large as the De Beers, one mile distant, is the richest of them all. The claims staked out in January, 1871, had in 1874 reached a depth of 100 feet, when water and caving became troublesome.

Open working on the De Beers mine reached a depth of 450 feet in 1885, and later in underground working a depth of 1,200 feet was attained. The blue earth is raised by engines, and carried to a hill for the exposure which causes disintegration. Open workings in the Bultfontein mine nearby have reached a depth of 700 feet. The Dutoitspan mine, also close at hand, has produced the largest stone, 404 carats, or more than three ounces; the largest diamond from the De Beers mine was a yellow stone weighing 302 carats, whiles the most valuable one, called the Porter-Rhodes, a white octahedron weighing 150 carats and valued at £60,000, came from the Kimberley.

Gambling attended early diamond digging in Africa as with early gold digging in California. There were the usual games, roulette, rouge-et-noir, trente-et-quarante, and faro, conducted openly in houses of good repute, one saloon making £40,000 within a few months. With government prohibition at Kimberley, gamblers betook themselves across the Orange Free State line to Wessel's farm, near Dutoitspan, which place later became notorious for its illicit diamond traffic. Race-course lotteries were next in vogue; but public gaming at the diamond mines was neither heavy nor long protracted. The illicit traffic in diamonds continued, however, with increasing proportions until in 1882, when stringent laws were passed and a detective agency established, it was estimated that not more than half of the diamond yield had reached the owners of the mines. The precautions since adopted have rendered stealing almost impossible, the miners being stripped and closely examined at the end of each day’s work.

The town of Kimberley, with 30,000 people, to which may be added Beaconsfield with 10,000, has been built with little regard to regularity of streets; yet it contains some presentable edifices which have taken the place of those at first constructed of corrugated iron, notably the high court building of Griqualand West, and the public library. Never was there so much mining in progress throughout the world as at the present day, when aside from American and Australian outputs, a steady stream of gold is pouring into London from Africa, causing an excitement as deep if not as boisterous as any South Sea or Mississippi bubble. It is claimed for the principal mines that they contain true fissure veins, and if this be the case, no present estimate can be formed as to their prospective yield.

Open working on the De Beers mine reached a depth of 450 feet in 1885, and later in underground working a depth of 1,200 feet was attained. The blue earth is raised by engines, and carried to a hill for the exposure which causes disintegration. Open workings in the Bultfontein mine nearby have reached a depth of 700 feet. The Dutoitspan mine, also close at hand, has produced the largest stone, 404 carats, or more than three ounces; the largest diamond from the De Beers mine was a yellow stone weighing 302 carats, whiles the most valuable one, called the Porter-Rhodes, a white octahedron weighing 150 carats and valued at £60,000, came from the Kimberley.

Gambling attended early diamond digging in Africa as with early gold digging in California. There were the usual games, roulette, rouge-et-noir, trente-et-quarante, and faro, conducted openly in houses of good repute, one saloon making £40,000 within a few months. With government prohibition at Kimberley, gamblers betook themselves across the Orange Free State line to Wessel's farm, near Dutoitspan, which place later became notorious for its illicit diamond traffic. Race-course lotteries were next in vogue; but public gaming at the diamond mines was neither heavy nor long protracted. The illicit traffic in diamonds continued, however, with increasing proportions until in 1882, when stringent laws were passed and a detective agency established, it was estimated that not more than half of the diamond yield had reached the owners of the mines. The precautions since adopted have rendered stealing almost impossible, the miners being stripped and closely examined at the end of each day’s work.

The town of Kimberley, with 30,000 people, to which may be added Beaconsfield with 10,000, has been built with little regard to regularity of streets; yet it contains some presentable edifices which have taken the place of those at first constructed of corrugated iron, notably the high court building of Griqualand West, and the public library. Never was there so much mining in progress throughout the world as at the present day, when aside from American and Australian outputs, a steady stream of gold is pouring into London from Africa, causing an excitement as deep if not as boisterous as any South Sea or Mississippi bubble. It is claimed for the principal mines that they contain true fissure veins, and if this be the case, no present estimate can be formed as to their prospective yield.